5 December 1980
Agenda item 61 a
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly
The General Assembly
1.Proclaims the Third United Nations Development Decade, starting on 1 January 1981;
2.Adopts the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade, as set forth in the annex to the present resolution.
83rd plenary meeting
International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade
1. In launching the Third United Nations Development Decade, starting on 1 January 1981, Governments rededicate themselves to the fundamental objectives enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations. They reaffirm solemnly their determination to establish a new international economic order. To this end, they recall the Declaration and the Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order /16 of the sixth special session of the General Assembly, the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, /17 and the resolution on development and international economic cooperation /18 adopted by the Assembly at its seventh special session, which laid down the foundations for the establishment of the new international economic order.
2. The adoption of the International Development Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade /19 was an important step in the promotion of international economic co-operation for development. However, the limitations of a strategy, when conceived within the framework of the existing system of international economic relations, soon became obvious. Inequities and imbalances in these relations are widening the gap between developed and developing countries, constitute a major obstacle to the development of the developing countries and adversely affect international relations and the promotion of world peace and security. Midway through the Decade, the world community called for a fundamental restructuring of international economic relations and embarked upon its quest for a new international economic order.
3. The goals and objectives of the International Development Strategy for the Second Development Decade remain largely unfulfilled. In addition, the present negative trends in the world economy have adversely affected the situation of developing countries and, as a result, have impaired their growth prospects. Developing countries have been hit particularly hard by the continuing economic crisis owing to the greater vulnerability of their economies to external factors. The present difficult international economic environment has particularly aggravated the special problems facing the least developed countries and other developing countries, particularly those in the special categories, where development needs and problems are greatest, and the poorest sections of the population. The stark reality confronting mankind today is that close to 850 million people in the developing world are living at the margin of existence - enduring hunger, sickness, homelessness and absence of meaningful employment.
4. The international economy remains in a state of structural disequilibrium. It is characterized by a slower growth rate accompanied by a continuing trend of high inflation and unemployment, prolonged monetary instability, intensified protectionist pressures, structural problems and maladjustment and uncertain long-term growth prospects. In an interdependent world economy, these problems cannot be solved without resolving the particular problems facing the developing countries. Furthermore, accelerated development of developing countries is of vital importance for the steady growth of the world economy and essential for world peace and stability.
5. The current difficulties should not deter the world community from the imperative to restructure international economic relations. The challenge of development calls for a new era of effective and meaningful international co-operation for development responsive to the needs and problems of the developing countries.
6. The International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade is an integral part of the continuing efforts of the international community to accelerate the development of developing countries and to establish a new international economic order and is directed towards the achievement of its objectives. These call, in particular, for equitable, full and effective participation by developing countries in the formulation and application of all decisions in the field of development and international economic co-operation with a view to bringing about far-reaching changes in the structure of the present international economic system on a just and equitable basis and the full and permanent sovereignty of every State over its resources and economic activities.
7. The new International Development Strategy aims at the promotion of the economic and social development of the developing countries with a view to reducing significantly the current disparities between the developed and developing countries, as well as the early eradication of poverty and dependency, which, in turn, would contribute to the solution of international economic problems and sustained global economic development, and would also be supported by such development on the basis of justice, equality and mutual benefit. The International Development Strategy is a vast undertaking, involving the entire international community, for the promotion of international development co-operation.
8. The development process must promote human dignity. The ultimate aim of development is the constant improvement of the well-being of the entire population on the basis of its full participation in the process of development and a fair distribution of the benefits therefrom. In this context, a substantial improvement in the status of women will take place during the Decade. In this perspective, economic growth, productive employment and social equity are fundamental and indivisible elements of development. The International Development Strategy should, therefore, fully reflect the need for the adoption of adequate and appropriate policies, to be defined by each country within the framework of its development plans and priorities, for movement towards the realization of this ultimate goal of development. The pace of development in the developing countries as a whole should be accelerated substantially in order to enable them to achieve these objectives.
9. The primary responsibility for the development of developing countries rests upon those countries themselves. Effective action by the international community, however, is indispensable for the creation of an environment that is fully supportive of the national and collective efforts of the developing countries for the realization of their development goals. For their part, the developing countries will continue to place increasing emphasis on collective self-reliance as a means of accelerating their development and contributing to the establishment of a new international economic order.
10. The most pressing problems and deteriorating situations of the least developed countries require particular attention, and special and effective measures will be taken for the elimination of the basic constraints facing these countries and to ensure their accelerated development. Likewise, specific measures and actions will be taken to meet the special and pressing problems of the land-locked, island and most seriously affected developing countries.
11. Specific regional problems of developing countries, where they exist and are included in regional development strategies, such as the Lagos Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Monrovia Strategy for the Economic Development of Africa,/20 will also be taken into account through effective and adequate measures within the framework of the general policy measures adopted in favour of all developing countries.
12. Urgent action should be taken by all the members of the international community to end without delay colonialism, imperialism, neo-colonialism, interference in internal affairs, apartheid, racial discrimination, hegemony, expansionism and all forms of foreign aggression and occupation, which constitute major obstacles to the economic emancipation and development of the developing countries.
13. Full respect for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of every country, abstention from the threat or use of force against any State, non-interference in the internal affairs of other States and the settlement by peaceful means of disputes among States are or the utmost importance for the success of the International Development Strategy. There should be concrete progress towards the goals of general and complete disarmament under effective international control, including the urgent implementation of measures of disarmament, which would release substantial additional resources which could be utilized for social and economic development, particularly for the benefit of the developing countries.
14. It is essential to mobilize public opinion in all countries, particularly the developed countries, in order to obtain their full commitment to the goals and objectives and the implementation of the present Strategy. Recognizing the important role of legislative bodies in contributing to realistic preparation and effective implementation of national economic and social development plans, the support of members of legislative bodies will be essential for the implementation of the International Development Strategy.
15. Organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system will assist appropriately in the implementation of the Strategy and in the search for new avenues of international co-operation for development.
16. Governments designate the decade starting on 1 January 1981 as the Third United Nations Development Decade and pledge themselves, individually and collectively, to fulfil their commitment to establish a new international economic order based on justice and equity. They subscribe to the goals and objectives of the Strategy and firmly resolve to translate them into reality by adopting a coherent set of interrelated, concrete and effective policy measures in all sectors of development. These goals and objectives and policy measures are set out below.
17. The International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade, as an integral part of the efforts of the international community to establish a new international economic order, aims at the accelerated development of the developing countries. In contributing to the solution of international economic problems, it will greatly help sustained global economic development and promote the achievement of the ultimate aim of development - the improvement of the conditions of all. It will involve and require changes in the world economy and in the economies of the developed and developing countries themselves: and it calls for institutional and structural changes in international economic relations. In an interdependent world economy, it is the responsibility or all Governments to contribute to the achievement of the goals and objectives of the Strategy, the experience of the 1970s clearly indicates that the goals and objectives of the world community can only be attained through a substantially greater effort in the 1980s than was made in the Second United Nations Development Decade.
18. Particular attention should be given to the need for accelerated development of the least developed countries and other developing countries, particularly those in the special categories, where the development needs and problems are greatest. Special and effective measures should be taken to alleviate their pressing problems and lessen the basic economic constraints facing them.
19. Accelerated development calls for a more equitable distribution of economic opportunities among nations. In an interdependent world this will be a source of economic strength. It entails changes in the patterns of global production, consumption and trade arising in particular from the industrialization of developing countries: it requires effective control by those countries over the use of their own resources: and it calls for changes in the framework of international economic relations so as to ensure the equitable, full and effective participation of those countries in the formulation and application of all decisions in the field of international economic co-operation for development.
20. Each developing country will set its own target for growth in the light of its particular circumstances. In order to achieve the goals and objectives of the International Development Strategy, the average annual rate of growth of gross domestic product for the developing countries as a whole during the Decade should be 7 per cent, and in the early part of the Decade, as close as possible to this rate. This target and those derived from it are a broad indication of the scope of concerted efforts to be made during the Decade at the national and international levels. On the basis of regional needs, circumstances and patterns of growth, more specific regional goals may be elaborated in the framework of the regional commissions Special efforts are required to ensure that the low-income developing countries attain the average rate of 7 per cent.
21. If the average annual rate of growth of population in the developing countries were to remain at about 2.5 per cent, an average annual increase of 7 per cent in gross domestic product would lead to an annual increase of about 4.5 per cent in per capita gross domestic product. This would double income per capita in developing countries around the middle of the 1990s. Such a growth in income is necessary if real progress is to be made towards raising substantially the share of the developing countries in world production of goods and services and towards eliminating the growing gap between the standards of living of developing and developed countries. Such growth is equally essential if the people of developing countries are to benefit from development through expanding employment opportunities, rising levels of income and consumption, better housing and expanding facilities for health and education. Accelerated growth in the developing countries is also needed in order to support national policies aimed at achieving a more equitable distribution of income and benefits from development. Further, such growth will contribute significantly to a more balanced growth of the world economy.
22. An acceleration in the tempo of production in developing countries will require a rapid expansion and diversification of their international trade. For developing countries in general, exports and imports of goods and services should expand at annual rates of not less than 7.5 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively. The attainment of such rates of growth and the improvement of the terms of trade of developing countries will necessitate equitable participation of developing countries in international trade, inter alia, through improved market access for their products, and extending to them special and preferential treatment where feasible and appropriate, in the context of the general effort to liberalize world trade, particularly in their favour, and vigorous efforts to resist protectionism, as steps towards promoting equity in trade relations between the developing and developed countries. The industrialized countries will take fully into account the industrialization and development objectives of the developing countries when shaping their trade policies, in particular by continuing and accelerating the implementation of effective adjustment policies based on mutual benefit and dynamic comparative advantage.
23. The acceleration of production will require that gross investment reaches the level of about 28 per cent of gross domestic product by 1990. The developing countries, therefore, must fully mobilize their domestic financial resources. To this end, for developing countries in general, gross domestic saving should be increased to reach about 24 per cent of gross domestic product by 1990. The developing countries that have a saving ratio of less than 15 per cent should make vigorous efforts to raise it to 20 per cent as early as possible. The countries that have or will soon have a saving ratio of 20 per cent should raise it significantly during the Decade.
24. The rising investments and imports needed for an acceleration of growth commensurate with the attainment of the goals and objectives of the International Development Strategy require a substantially greater flow of financial resources in real terms to developing countries. In this context, recent major proposals made by heads of State and Government, and other important proposals to increase substantially concessional and non-concessional flows in real terms to developing countries, should be given urgent consideration by the international community. A major objective of the Decade must be to make possible in the context of continued changes and improvements in the international financial system an enhanced flow of financial resources on terms and conditions that are better attuned to the development aims and economic circumstances of developing countries. A rapid and substantial increase will be made in official development assistance by all developed countries, with a view to reaching and where possible surpassing the agreed international target of 0.7 per cent of the gross national product of developed countries. To this end, developed countries which have not yet reached the target should make their best efforts to reach it by 1985, and in any case not later than in the second half of the Decade. The target of 1 per cent should be reached as soon as possible thereafter. The efforts of developed countries will be greater, the lower their relative performance. Developing countries in a position to do so should also continue to provide assistance to other developing countries. Within the framework of this general increase to all developing countries, and in order to meet the most pressing problems and correct the deteriorating situation of the least developed countries and developing countries in the other special categories where the development needs and problems are greatest, the flows of official development assistance will increasingly be directed towards those countries.
25. Efforts should be made to encourage an increase in net flows of non-concessional capital which is required for the over-all financing needs of the developing countries, taking into account their national plans and legislations.
26. In order to create conditions more favourable to the development of the developing countries and the growth of the world economy in general, efforts to increase the responsiveness of the international monetary system to the needs and interests of the developing countries should be intensified through further reform of the system to be pursued and carried out expeditiously early in and throughout the Decade to the benefit of the entire international community. To these ends, the international monetary system should provide for the equitable and effective participation of developing countries in decision making, taking into account, inter alia, their growing role in the world economy, as well as a symmetrical and efficient adjustment process, stability of exchange rates of international currencies, and further strengthening and expansion of the special drawing rights as the central reserve asset in order to ensure better international control over the creation and equitable distribution of international liquidity. In stipulating the conditions attached to the use of its resources, the International Monetary Fund will pay due regard to the social and political domestic objectives of member countries, to their economic priorities and circumstances, including the causes of their balance-of-payments problems. The international and multilateral financial institutions are urged to continue to expand and improve their lending facilities, and to create new ones where necessary, with a view to assisting their members, including in particular the developing countries which face balance-of-payments difficulties.
27. The persistence of inflation in the world economy, particularly in developed countries, impedes growth and development and renders the situation of developing countries even more precarious. The rate of inflation should be substantially reduced and its adverse effects should be mitigated as far as possible so as to help to ensure a sustained, increased and real economic growth, particularly in the developing countries. Rapid economic growth in developing countries will help rationalize productive structures and decrease inflationary pressures.
28. Hunger and malnutrition must be eliminated as soon as possible and certainly by the end of this century. Substantial progreSs should be made during the Decade towards food self-sufficiency and food security in developing countries so as to ensure an adequate level of nutrition for everybody. Agricultural production in developing countries as a whole should expand at an average annual rate of at least 4 per cent so that it will be possible to meet the nutritional needs of the populations, to enlarge the base for industrialization and the diversification of economic structures, and to redress current imbalances in world production. The share of developing countries in world exports of food and agricultural products should increase substantially. To those ends, developing countries should continue to strengthen the formulation and implementation of food and agricultural development plans within the framework of their national development priorities and programmes. These objectives should be supported by additional external resource transfers in the context of over-all greater flows of financial resources to developing countries. An improved international framework for the agricultural development of developing countries is also necessary, including increased market stability, greater security of agricultural supplies and, in order to enlarge the export potential of developing countries, improved access for their agricultural products to world markets.
29. Developing countries as a whole should expand manufacturing output at an average annual rate of 9 per cent, thereby making a significant contribution during the Decade towards raising the share of developing countries in world manufacturing production and laying the basis for achieving the target of a 25 per cent share of world production by the year 2000 as set out in the Lima Declaration and Plan of Action on Industrial Development and Co-operation. /21 Industrialization should be aimed at meeting in an integrated way the over-all requirements of the development of the national economies of developing countries. Manufacturing activities should be geared towards not only satisfying growing domestic demand and employment requirements but also, as a component of independent national economies, increasing the share of developing countries in world exports of manufactured goods. A fundamental objective of the world community is to achieve a system of trade based on a dynamic pattern of comparative advantage reflecting a more effective international division of labour. Far-reaching changes should, therefore, be brought about in the structure of world production, in the spirit of mutual benefit, so as to increase and diversify the production of the developing countries and create new sources of employment there. In this context, improved access to markets for products of export interest to developing countries and continued attention to the formulation and implementation of positive adjustment policies in the industrialized countries are important objectives of international co-operation.
30. The physical and institutional infrastructure in developing countries should be expanded at rates that fully support the rate of expansion of the economy as a whole, and adequate financial and technical resources should be provided for that purpose. Special attention should be given to overcoming the bottle-necks and constraints of transport and communication facing the developing countries, particularly with a view to strengthening intra-regional and interregional links.
31. Due account should be taken of the positive role of the public sector in mobilizing internal resources, formulating and implementing over-all national development plans and establishing national priorities.
32. In a growing world economy and without prejudice to the principle of full and permanent sovereignty of each State over its natural resources, the rational, development, management and utilization of natural resources should be encouraged in order, inter alia, to prevent early exhaustion of finite resources and overburdening of renewable resources. It will be necessary, particularly for the industrialized countries, which bear the heaviest responsibility for the use of natural resources, to encourage new patterns of consumption and production.
33. In the field of raw materials, the agreed objectives of the Integrated Programme for Commodities /22 should be actively pursued. In this context, international commodity agreements should be concluded and a more equitable distribution of activities related to the processing of raw materials should be achieved with the aim of increasing the location of those activities in developing countries. Developing countries should also acquire improved capacity to explore and develop their natural resources and to ensure closer integration of the sector in the over-all development of their economies.
34. In order to create conditions more favourable to the development of the developing countries and the growth of the world economy in general, efforts for the development and expansion of all energy resources of the world should be intensified in search of a long-term solution to the energy problem. The international community will have to make substantial and rapid progress in the transition from the present international economy based primarily on hydrocarbons. It will have to rely increasingly on new and renewable sources of energy, seeking to reserve hydrocarbons for non-energy and non-substitutable uses. In view of the finite supply of fossil fuels in the world economy and the often wasteful and inefficient utilization of those resources, effective measures for their conservation will have to be urgently adopted and/or improved, in particular by developed countries which consume the major share of the world's hydrocarbon production.
35. In view of the increasing energy requirements of the developing countries during the Decade and beyond, which will limit their ability to reduce energy use significantly without hindering their development, concerted and adequate measures commensurate with their development goals and their immediate and longer-term needs will be adopted by the international community. In this context, the exploration, development, expansion and processing of all energy resources of the developing countries will be promoted at a rate commensurate with their development objectives and adequate financial and technical resources will be provided for the purpose. The international community will devote serious attention to the effective implementation of the results of the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy. Adequate financial and technical resources will be devoted to the development of new and renewable sources, to conventional forms of energy and to the adaptation of technology to the Heeds of developing countries. Developed countries should give or facilitate, as appropriate, the freest and fullest possible access to all energy technologies, particularly those related to the development of new and renewable forms. The problem of energy will be considered within the global negotiations relating to international economic co-operation for development, as agreed to by the General Assembly at its thirty-fourth session./23
36. The strengthening of the scientific and technological capacities of developing countries is essential for their sustained and accelerated development. The international community will implement the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development /24 principally in order to strengthen the scientific and technological capacities of developing countries, to restructure the existing pattern of international scientific and technological relations and to strengthen the role of the United Nations system in science and technology and the provision of increased financial resources. Efforts will be made at national and international levels to enable developing countries to have easier access to the technology - including advanced technology - they require and to facilitate the transfer of such technology on a substantially increased scale.
37. The most pressing problems and the deteriorating situation of the least developed countries must receive special attention. In order to remove the basic constraints to their development and thereby transform their economies, efforts by the least developed countries themselves and by the international community must be immediately and substantially expanded. Measures should be focused on promoting a self-sustained process of development, on accelerating agricultural and industrial progress and on ensuring the development of human resources and broadly-based participation in development. The international community will devote serious attention to the effective preparation and conclusion of and follow-up to the United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries.
38. The special and pressing problems of the land-locked, island and most seriously affected developing countries need to be met through specific measures and actions.
39. There is a close relationship between disarmament and development. Progress in the former would help greatly in the realization of the latter. Therefore, resources released as a result of the implementation of disarmament measures should be devoted to the economic and social development of all nations and should contribute to the bridging of the economic gap between developed and developing countries.
40. Economic and technical co-operation among developing countries based on the principle of collective self-reliance constitutes a dynamic and vital component of an effective restructuring of international economic relations. While the main elements of economic and technical co-operation among developing countries will be determined by those countries themselves, the international community should accord high priority and urgency to supporting the efforts of developing countries to strengthen and implement their programmes of mutual economic and technical co-operation. Such programmes will contribute to reducing their external dependence and vulnerability, achieving equitable and balanced international economic relations and strengthening their role in the world economy, their self-reliance and autonomous growth and development.
41. Accelerated development in the developing countries could enhance their capacity to improve their environment. The environmental implications of poverty and under-development and the interrelationships between development, environment, population and resources must be taken into account in the process of development. It is essential to avoid environmental degradation and give future generations the benefit of a sound environment. There is need to ensure an economic development process which is environmentally sustainable over the long run and which protects the ecological balance. Determined efforts must be made to prevent deforestation, erosion, soil degradation and desertification. International cooperation in environmental protection should be increased.
42. Development is an integral process, embodying both economic and social objectives. National development plans and targets of the developing countries should be formulated on the basis of a unified approach to economic and social development, which is essential for balanced development of all sectors of the economy, should provide for both accelerated growth and increased effectiveness of production and should fully take into account not only immediate but also long-term social and economic objectives of development of the developing countries. It is for each country to establish adequate national objectives for the promotion of human and social development within the framework of its development plans, priorities and resources and in accordance with its socio-economic structure and existing circumstances. The final aim of development must be the continuing increase in the well-being of the entire population on the basis of its full participation in the process of development and a fair distribution of the benefits therefrom. As part of the efforts to implement the International Development Strategy, the international community will provide technical and financial support to achieve those goals, in the context of an over-all substantial increase in resources for development, paying due respect to the cultural identities of nations and peoples.
43. The reduction and elimination of poverty and a fair distribution of the benefits of development are primary objectives for the international community during the Decade. Great numbers of workers remain underemployed or unemployed. Many millions are illiterate. High infant mortality rates, poor housing and environmental degradation in urban slums and depressed rural areas continue to afflict the people of the developing countries. More resources for production, higher productivity and accelerated development are essential for progress towards higher and more equitable standards of living. These are continuing challenges to the international community, and Governments accordingly reaffirm their commitment to the broad aim of development.
44. The achievement of full employment by the year 2000 remains a primary objective. Intensive efforts will have to be made to increase the opportunities for productive employment, especially for the new entrants to the labour force, as this is expected to increase by 2.5 per cent per annum, and to reduce and eliminate the present massive unemployment and underemployment.
45. The international community recognizes the need for countries to continue to strengthen their implementation of the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action. /25 Consistent with the World Population Plan of Action, all countries should respect and ensure the right of parents to determine the number and spacing of their children and should, as a matter of urgency, make universally available advice on and means of achieving the desired family size.
46. The development of human resources provides a broad basis for development; it enhances the capacity of people to participate constructively in the development process. In this context, education is an important element, and the provision of universal education on the broadest possible scale, the eradication or considerable reduction of illiteracy, and the closest possible realization of universal primary enrolment by the year 2000 remain major goals of all countries during the Decade. A parallel and harmonious expansion of all levels and types of education is equally necessary, keeping in view the decisive role of education and training for national development and individual fulfilment.
47. The absence or shortage of trained and qualified national personnel often limits the capacity of developing countries to take full advantage of existing or potential development opportunities. The provision of the required trained and qualified personnel on a scale assuring national self-sufficiency in this respect would constitute an important contribution to the achievement of the development goals of the developing countries. The international community should provide adequate financial and technical resources to support the training of national personnel in all sectors of social and economic activities in the developing countries
48. The attainment by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit all peoples of the world to lead a socially and economically productive life is an important objective of the international community. Primary health care is a key measure for the attainment of this objective. All countries will broaden the access of the poorest groups in their populations to health facilities and, with the assistance of the international community, will ensure immunization against major infectious diseases for all children as early as possible during the Decade. Safe water and adequate sanitary facilities should also be made available to all in rural and urban areas by 1990. The reduction of mortality rates will be a major objective. In the poorest countries, infant mortality should be reduced to less than 120 per 1,000 live births. Life expectancy in all countries should reach 60 years as a minimum, and infant mortality rates should reach 50 per 1,000 live births, as a maximum, by the year 2000. Particular efforts should be made to integrate the disabled in the development process. Effective measures of prevention and rehabilitation are therefore essential.
49. The provision of basic shelter and infrastructure for all people, in rural as well as urban areas, is a long-term goal. A balanced network of cities, towns and villages is needed for harmonious development, for the emergence of mutually supportive linkages between industrial and agricultural activities, and for the adequate provision of infrastructure and services. Well-balanced programmes for the development of human settlements are necessary so as to provide greater benefits to low-income groups.
50. In pursuit of the objectives highlighted during the International Year of the Child, /26 the welfare of children will be fostered. The essential role of the family in the balanced development of the child should be stressed. Efforts should be made to improve the living conditions of children and to eliminate child labour in conformity with the relevant international labour conventions: special attention should be paid to the large number of children under 15 years of age living in poor rural and urban areas.
51. Full and effective participation by the entire population at all stages of the development process should be ensured. In line with the Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women,/27 women should play an active role in that process. Appropriate measures should be taken for profound social and economic changes and for the elimination of the structural imbalances which compound and perpetuate women's disadvantages. To this end, all countries will pursue the objective of securing women's equal participation both as agents and as beneficiaries in all sectors and at all levels of the development process. This should include women's greater access to nutrition, health services, education and training, employment, and financial resources and their greater participation in the analysis, planning, decision-making, implementation and evaluation of development. Changes that will lead to the sharing of responsibilities by men and women in the family and in the management of the household should be encouraged. Institutional and administrative mechanisms to accomplish these objectives should be strengthened. All countries should give high priority to the objectives of mobilizing and integrating youth in development.
52. All countries commit themselves to an open and expanding trade system to further progress in the liberalization of trade and to the promotion of structural adjustment which will facilitate the realization of the dynamic pattern of comparative advantage. The rules and principles governing the functioning of international trade will be kept under review so as to ensure the steady growth of trade under equitable and secure conditions. To this end, there should be more effective implementation, as far as possible, of the principle of differential and more favourable treatment, on a non-reciprocal basis, of developing countries in order to enhance their market access and to increase their share of world trade, taking into account their trade, development and financial needs.
53. As an immediate measure, the agreements reached in the multilateral trade negotiations will be promptly and fully implemented by the parties to those agreements. Steps will be taken early in the Third United Nations Development Decade to reduce or to eliminate existing restrictions on imports from developing countries. Developed countries will implement fully and adhere strictly to the standstill provisions that they have accepted. Concerted efforts will be made, particularly by developed countries, to reduce non-tariff barriers progressively and even abolish them, especially in the case of products or sectors of export interest to the developing countries.
54. Efforts will be pursued to reach an agreement on a multilateral safeguard system based on and subject to objective internationally agreed criteria relating to, inter alia, adequate testing of serious injury in order to provide greater uniformity and certainty in implementation and to ensure that the safeguard clause, if used, is not applied for protectionist reasons or to hinder structural change.
55. The Common Fund, as a new entity serving as a key instrument for the attainment of the agreed objectives of the Integrated Programme for Commodities, will urgently be brought into full and effective operation.
56. International commodity agreements, with initial emphasis on the core commodities included in the indicative list of the Integrated Programme for Commodities, should be concluded.
57. A framework of international co-operation will be established within the over-all context of the Integrated Programme for Commodities for expanding in developing countries the processing of primary commodities and exports of processed goods, as well as for the increased participation of developing countries in the marketing, distribution and transportation of their primary commodities.
58. Additional measures for the improvement and stabilization of commodity export earnings of developing countries should be considered as soon as possible.
59. International organizations and developed countries and others in a position to do so should assist developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, through the provision of capital and technology and of training skills for developing, processing and manufacturing capacities and for setting up and strengthening finance, commerce, transport, various services and other infrastructures in developing countries to facilitate and promote their production and exports of manufactured and semi-manufactured goods.
60. Developed countries should exert their best efforts to improve access to their markets for exports of agricultural products on a stable and predictable basis. They should accord developing countries the opportunity to expand their agricultural exports through a continued and accelerated liberalization of agricultural and trade policies. Urgent action will be taken in relevant negotiating forums to move towards the approval and implementation of proposals to bring about the reduction and elimination of barriers to trade in agricultural products, in particular in relation to those of export interest to developing countries, and thus to facilitate, inter alia, more efficient patterns of production. Developed countries will make their best efforts to adjust those sectors of their agricultural and manufacturing economies which require protection against exports from developing countries, thus facilitating access to the markets of food and agricultural products. The developed countries should exert their best efforts to avoid adverse effects on the economies of the developing countries while formulating and implementing their domestic agricultural policies.
61. In the context of the framework for international cooperation, measures should be taken, including internationally agreed programmes for research and development, in order to improve the competitiveness of natural products produced in developing countries with the synthetics and substitutes of developed countries. Furthermore, measures should be considered to harmonize, where appropriate, the production of such synthetics and substitutes with the supply of natural products produced in developing countries.
62. Sectoral agreements which result in hampering the growth in the trade of developing countries should be avoided to the maximum extent. Efforts should be made to avoid extending such existing agreements with a view to their eventual elimination.
63. The generalized system of preferences should be continued as an important long-term instrument for promoting trade and development co-operation and, in particular, for bringing about an increased share of developing countries in world trade. The international community reaffirms the importance of the generalized, non-reciprocal and non-discriminatory system of preferences for expansion and diversification of the export trade of developing countries and for acceleration of the rates of their economic growth. To this end, the preference-giving countries will implement fully the agreement reached by the Special Committee on Preferences of the Trade and Development Board at its ninth session. /28 A comprehensive review of the generalized system of preferences should be held in 1990.
64. Efforts should be pursued and intensified by developed countries to take special unilateral measures further to reduce trade barriers facing developing countries in respect of tropical products, including those products in their processed forms, on a non-reciprocal basis. Those reductions should be urgently considered and carried out.
65. The International Trade Centre should be further supported by technical and financial assistance from donor countries in order to increase and strengthen its technical co-operation programme with developing countries in trade promotion and export development activities.
66. Socialist countries of Eastern Europe, in the context of their long-term economic plans, will continue to adopt and implement appropriate measures, in order to increase their trade with developing countries, commensurate with the trade needs of the developing countries, including in particular their production and export potential.
67. Developing countries will promote and expand trade among themselves in accordance with the relevant decisions taken by those countries in the Arusha Programme for Collective Self-Reliance and Framework for Negotiations,/29 adopted by the fourth Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77, held at Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, from 12 to 16 February 1979, and in other international forums. The international community will provide appropriate support and assistance to the efforts of developing countries.
68. Measures will be devised during the Decade to encourage a more balanced international distribution of service industries and to assist developing countries in minimizing as far as possible their net outflow of foreign exchange from invisible transactions, including transport. Developing countries will expand their tourist industry. Developed countries will assist in this endeavour as far as possible.
69. The international community will take appropriate measures to help the establishment and growth of local insurance markets in developing countries where such potential exists. As regards those insurance operations that cannot be carried out without using external insurance services, it is essential that the terms and conditions of international insurance and reinsurance transactions are equitable for, and meet the needs of, all parties concerned, in particular those of the developing countries.
70. Negotiations on a United Nations code of conduct on transnational corporations will be concluded in 1981 and the code will be adopted expeditiously by all members of the international community soon afterwards, aimed at preventing - with a view to eliminating - the negative effects of activities of transnational corporations and promoting the positive contribution of transnational corporations to the development efforts of the developing countries, consistent with the national development plans and priorities of those countries. National policies which enable Governments to deal with and regulate effectively the operations of the transnational corporations will also be developed and pursued.
Restrictive business practices
71. The principles and rules for the control of restrictive business practices which adversely affect international trade, particularly that of the developing countries, and their economic development, approved by the United Nations Conference on Restrictive Business Practices,/30 will be actively implemented.
72. The rapid industrialization of developing countries constitutes an indispensable element and a dynamic instrument of the sustained self-reliant growth of their economies and of their social transformation. It is for each developing country to determine its own industrial development goals and priorities. The attainment of the targets for the industrialization of the developing countries contained in the present Strategy, aimed at, inter alia, raising the share of the developing countries in world industrial production in accordance with the Lima Declaration and Plan of Action, calls for far-reaching changes in the structure of world production. To this end, developing and developed countries will consider and adopt appropriate policies and programmes at the national, regional and international levels for the strengthening and expansion of the developing countries' industrial capacities as an essential element of their development process.
73. These policies and programmes include, as a crucial element, the redeployment of industrial capacities. This redeployment will primarily consist of the creation of new industrial capacities in developing countries, as well as the redeployment of industrial capacities from industrialized to developing countries on the principle of dynamic comparative advantage, in conjunction with structural adjustment, and taking fully into account the over-all national objectives and priorities in particular of developing countries. This involves the transfer of financial, technological, managerial, personnel and other resources to developing countries, including the provision of the necessary training and expert services. While economic, institutional, social and other pertinent factors have an important bearing on this process, Governments, in particular those of the developed countries, should encourage and intensify the process by actively pursuing policies with a view to encouraging the continued reallocation of resources and encouraging domestic factors of production to move from internationally less competitive to more viable lines of production or into other sectors of the economy. These policies should be accompanied, to the maximum extent possible, by increased access to their markets of the manufactured products of developing countries.
74. Attention will be given to strengthening the developing countries' industries as a means of independent and autonomous industrial development, working out long-term industrialization plans and programmes, including plans and programmes for the discovery, exploitation and more complete processing of natural resources; a balanced industrial development with heavy and light industries, basic industries, large-scale, intermediate-scale and small-scale production: and the establishment of agro-industrial complexes. Assistance should be given to the developing countries in forms which suit the interests of their self-sustained development.
75. The system of consultations established in the United Nations Industrial Development Organization as permanent activity will be strengthened, developed and made more effective so that it may make a substantial contribution to the industrialization of developing countries and contribute effectively to the achievement of the objectives and targets set out in the present Strategy as well as in the Lima Declaration and Plan of Action.
76. Both multilateral and bilateral sources of finance should respond, while taking into account the priorities of developing countries, to the need for a substantial increase in the transfer of financial and other resources, including official development assistance transfers, as appropriate, to developing countries to support and reinforce their industrialization programmes. The arrangements for industrial financing should be reviewed early in the Decade, keeping in mind recent proposals with a view to strengthening existing international financing facilities, including appropriate ways to extend or modify those facilities and other measures required towards this end. The United Nations Industrial Development Fund should be strengthened and enlarged to provide a significant increase in the technical assistance necessary for accelerating the industrialization of developing countries.
77. As part of an integrated industrial structure, it is necessary to encourage, inter alia, labour-intensive, medium-scale and small-scale industries which are efficient and generate more employment opportunities. The use of appropriate technology and effective policies to increase investments for the development of human resources should be further strengthened and broadened. Industrialization policies should have as one of their aims productive employment generation and the integration and equal participation of women in industrial development programmes.
78. Industrialization policies in developing countries will require vigorous domestic policies supported by international assistance and investment. Those policies could provide for, inter alia, increased domestic investment, taking into account the role of the public sector in this process, measures to encourage domestic savings and mutually beneficial foreign direct investment and other sources of private capital. It is for the developing countries to set their own investment priorities and take appropriate decisions regarding admission of foreign investment and private capital in the light of those priorities.
79. Consideration should be given by all countries to environmental aspects of industrialization in the formulation and implementation of their industrial policies and plans. Donor countries, suppliers of technology and the relevant international organizations should assist developing countries, at their request, with a view to enhancing their capacities in this respect.
80. The international community will accord highest priority to measures, including adequate financial provisions, as required, for the effective implementation of the Industrial Development Decade for Africa,/31 to be observed in the 1980s.
81. Agricultural and rural development and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are among the essential aims of the Third United Nations Development Decade Developing countries, in the context of their national development plans and priorities, firmly supported by the international community, will take all necessary measures to accelerate food and agricultural production in order to improve national and collective self-sufficiency in food as early as possible. To this end, effective policies should continue to be pursued and invigorated in relation to the provision of appropriate price incentives, distribution of credit, the improvement of storage and transport and reduction of food losses, in particular post-harvest losses. In the efforts to achieve the 4 per cent average annual growth in agricultural production, particular attention should be paid to low-income, food-deficit countries so as to allow them to attain this level of growth as early as possible. The implementation of national policies should take into account the need to mobilize fully the domestic resources of developing countries. Adequate consideration should be given to the implementation of agrarian reforms as one of the important factors for promoting increased agricultural production and rural development in conformity with the national plans and priorities of each developing country. In accordance with their national plans, they will give priority to programmes for adaptation of institutional frameworks so as to allow wider and more equitable access to land and water resources, as well as effective management of forests, pastures, water and other natural resources in their national interests, with wider dissemination and use of new and improved technology, including greater use of fertilizers, improved seeds and pesticides, utilization of irrigation potential and the development of forests and fisheries. They will make the necessary efforts to develop and promote social and economic services and adequate public utilities in rural areas. They will expand non-agricultural employment opportunities in rural areas, particularly in industries related to agriculture. All countries will take appropriate measures, on a priority basis, to restore and improve water resources and the capacity of the land to produce necessary agricultural products. Extensive reforestation programmes will be carried out to prevent soil erosion, as well as to satisfy local needs for wood as a raw material and source of energy.
82. All countries will take appropriate measures, on a priority basis, to implement the conclusions and recommendations set forth in the Declaration of Principles and the Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development,/32 as well as taking fully into account the conclusions and recommendations made by the relevant United Nations bodies and organizations concerned.
83. In support of measures in developing countries to increase substantially investment in agriculture, donor countries and international financial institutions will take all possible steps to increase the flow of financial resources to the developing countries. The resources of the International Fund for Agricultural Development should be replenished on a continuing basis at a level sufficient to attain its objectives as and when recommended by its Governing Council, taking into consideration the increasing needs of developing countries for external resources, with consultations relating to the first replenishment to be concluded, on a priority basis, before the end of 1980. Furthermore, donors should commit adequate funds for local costs and should meet requests wherever possible for financial participation in recurrent costs of the implementation of development projects in the agricultural sector.
84. Additional resources should be provided for the adaptation and dissemination of agricultural technologies and for the intensification of research into techniques that rely less on costly inputs and to an increasing extent on renewable inputs. High priority will be accorded to strengthening the network of international and regional research, including research training institutions, agricultural extension services and the exchange of information and experience, and to improving their relationship with national research systems. Special attention will be given to the implementation of the results of research at the level of the people concerned.
85. The international community will support measures to provide agricultural inputs, especially fertilizers, improved seeds and pesticides, and efforts directed towards the prevention of food losses, control of the desert locust and control of African trypanosomiasis.
86. Urgent measures will be taken early in the Decade to establish effective world food security. To this end, world cereal stocks should be maintained at an adequate level, which has been estimated at from 17 to 18 per cent of annual world consumption./33 It is essential that concerted efforts be made to conclude a new international grain agreement aimed at evolving an internationally co-ordinated system of nationally held food reserves. As an interim measure, early steps will be taken by countries to implement, on a voluntary basis, the Five-Point Plan of Action on World Food Security of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the resources of the Food Security Assistance Scheme of that Organization will be expanded. Bilateral assistance will be co-ordinated with the Scheme where appropriate.
87. Long-term measures are needed to step up food production in the developing countries, which is the only lasting way to obtain food security. At the national level and, in appropriate cases, at the regional level, developing countries should set up, as a complement to production policies, the facilities necessary for stocking, conservation, transport and distribution of food, to enable them to meet emergency situations, to reinforce the stability of their markets and to reduce avoidable post-harvest losses. In doing so, they should be supported by the international community by financial and technical assistance, as well as by food aid.
88. Since the Food Aid Convention agreed upon recently for 7.6 million tons falls considerably short of the target of 10 million tons, every effort should be made both to enlist new contributors and to increase the commitments of existing ones so that the new Convention can be renewed by mid-1981 with a firm assurance that the target will be the absolute minimum flow of assistance, even in times of high prices and food shortage. Urgent consideration will be given to a revision of the target, taking into account the estimated requirements of 17 to 18.5 million tons of cereals which provide a useful indicator of the over-all requirement of food aid by 1985. This estimate will be reviewed periodically. In order to ensure continuity, the Food Aid Convention should be extended to three years, if possible, and should provide for a revision of the minimum target to meet growing food aid requirements. Efforts should be made by donor countries and international organizations to meet food aid requirements, especially in the low-income, food-deficit countries.
89. While considering annual requirements of food aid by 1985, estimates of 300,000 tons of dairy products and 350,000 tons of vegetable oil, which also provide useful indicators of annual requirements, should be taken into account.
90. Resources of the World Food Programme will be augmented and every effort will be made to reach the current minimum agreed target of $1 billion for 1981/82 and the target agreed upon for each subsequent biennium during the Decade for this programme.
91. The International Monetary Fund should consider urgently, within the context of its financing facilities, the feasibility of providing additional balance-of-payments support for meeting the rise in food imports bills of low-income, food-deficit countries.
92. The target of 500,000 tons of cereals for the International Emergency Food Reserve should be realized immediately. All countries, particularly those which are not yet contributing to it, should make or increase their contributions to the Reserve. The Reserve should be maintained at 500.000 tons. Early consideration should be given to proposals for strengthening the Reserve, including the possibility of making a legally binding convention. Any proposals agreed upon should, inter alia, make provision for increasing the size of the Reserve so as to meet future emergency needs.
93. The eradication of hunger and malnutrition calls for concerted efforts, national food policies, plans and commitments by Governments, as well as appropriate programmes on the part of the United Nations system during the Decade and beyond. A positive commitment to nutrition policies will require efforts at the production and distribution levels to ensure that requisite food supplies are available for those whose consumption of food is inadequate. A special national commitment to the nutritional needs of children should be undertaken. Donor countries are strongly called upon to do their utmost to ensure a high nutritional value of their food aid.
94. Special attention will continue to be given to the impact of food trade on the levels of food production in the world, in particular with reference to the economies of the developing countries.
95. In the context of integrated rural development, Governments will encourage rural industrialization, the establishment and strengthening of agro-industrial complexes, the modernization of agriculture, better integration of women in all stages of the production process and the ensuring thereby of increased production of food and other agricultural products, and employment for the rural population. Governments should encourage and support the establishment of agricultural co-operatives
96. Developing countries will continue to bear the main responsibility for financing their development and will adopt vigorous measures for a fuller mobilization of their domestic financial resources. External financial resources, particularly official development assistance, constitute an indispensable element of support for the developing countries' own efforts. International financial flows, particularly public flows, should be improved and adapted consistent with the needs of developing countries as regards volume, composition, quality, forms and distribution of flows.
97. Bilateral and multilateral flows will be made on an increasingly assured, continuous and predictable basis.
98. A rapid and substantial increase will be made in official development assistance by all developed countries, with a view to reaching and, where possible, surpassing the agreed international target of 0.7 per cent of the gross national product of developed countries. To this end, developed countries which have not yet reached the target should exert their best efforts to reach it by 1985, and in any case not later than in the second half of the Decade. The target of 1 per cent should be reached as soon as possible thereafter. The efforts of developed countries will be greater, the lower their relative performance. Developing countries in a position to do so should also continue to provide assistance to other developing countries. In the context of this general increase and in order to meet the most pressing problems and the deteriorating situation of the least developed countries and developing countries in the other special categories where the development needs and problems are greatest, the flows of official development assistance will increasingly be directed towards those countries.
99. All developed donor countries should announce annually their plans or intentions, in the light of measures outlined in resolution 129 (V) of 3 June 1979 of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,/34 as regards an increase in official development assistance for the longest period ahead, and, where possible, for a minimum period of three years. They should provide full information on their official development assistance flows.
100. The international community will give priority consideration to the immediate and urgent needs of poorer developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, and in this context urgent consideration should be given to establishing emergency programmes of assistance to those countries. The measures of assistance and volume of the programmes will be determined, taking into account their present economic difficulties and longer-term development needs.
101. In the context of the general increase of official development assistance, equitable efforts will be made by donor countries with a view to doubling as soon as possible the flow of official development assistance to the least developed countries, taking into account the relative performance of the donor countries. All donor countries will give all due consideration, not later than at the United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, to be held in 1981, to the proposals for further measures to provide an adequate minimum flow of official development assistance, including those proposals for tripling the net disbursement of concessional assistance by 1984 and quadrupling it by 1990 at 1977 prices.
102. Within the context of this general increase to developing countries as a whole, specific efforts should be undertaken to meet the needs of other special categories of developing countries. To this end, official development assistance to these categories of countries will be increased substantially during the Decade, as appropriate.
103. The terms and conditions of official development assistance should be significantly improved. In particular:
104. Furthermore, sudden and important deterioration in the external conditions of developing countries, beyond their control, will be appropriately taken into account in determining the concessionality and grant element of official development assistance.
105. All developed donor countries will continue to improve their aid-giving procedures, in consultation with the beneficiary countries, so as to reduce obstacles to rapid aid disbursements and effective aid uses, without any discrimination.
106. In the field of export credits, the needs of the developing countries should be recognized by developed countries. To this end, the export credit guarantee agencies of the developed countries should, as appropriate, improve the guarantee conditions, including in particular increasing the guarantee periods granted, within the relevant international arrangements.
107. Flows from international and regional development finance institutions should be increased significantly in response to the growing needs of developing countries, in particular of those eligible for concessional-lending from those institutions. The policies as well as the resource base of the multilateral institutions should be reviewed in a regular, timely and co-ordinated fashion and modified, where necessary, so as to avoid any interruption in their activities and to ensure the expansion of their resources in real terms to adequate levels. In particular, the agreements reached with regard to the increase in the capital of the World Bank and the sixth replenishment of the International Development Association will be speedily implemented. Ways and means should also be considered to achieve long-term financing, including multi-year pledges of programmes of United Nations development assistance organizations. Special attention will be paid by all donors to timely and substantial increases in soft resources through multilateral institutions. The policies of those institutions should further evolve so as to be more responsive to the changing needs and socio-economic objectives of recipient countries, in particular as far as programme assistance, including sectoral assistance, and local cost and recurrent cost financing are concerned.
108. Consideration should be given by the World Bank and regional development banks to ways and means of strengthening their lending capacities, taking into account, inter alia, the proposals to raise the lending-capital ratio of those institutions.
109. The World Bank should consider steps in establishment of a long-term financing facility to finance the purchase of capital goods by developing countries, taking into account the related proposal for a subsidy account for the poorer developing countries.
110. Non-concessional flows will continue to be an important source of development finance for many developing countries. Substantially increased transfer of resources largely raised on the financial markets and, without prejudice to official development assistance, through new and innovative means will be further explored in depth to allow action-oriented decisions. In this context, several approaches, including co-financing with private resources and other existing and possible new mechanisms, will be taken into account. Attention should be given, inter alia, to multilateral guarantees for borrowing on international financial markets and borrowing in significant measure under the guarantee of members of the international community, taking into account the possibilities of interest-subsidy mechanisms. The appropriate international financial institutions, in their consideration of new forms of lending as a means of channelling external resources to developing countries, should also consider greater reliance on programme or non-project loans. Direct private investments that are compatible with the national priorities and legislation of developing countries will be encouraged. Developing countries interested in foreign direct investments should make efforts to create and maintain a favourable investment climate in the framework of their national plans and policies. The access of developing countries to private capital markets should be improved, further facilitated and encouraged. New ways and forms of lending should be compatible with the development priorities of developing countries and should take due account of their debt-servicing capacity over the longer term. New approaches should be considered to ensure the growth and stability of new types of flows, including available funds in financial and capital markets. New ways and forms of lending should reflect the principles of universality and equity in decision making. The proposal for a world development fund should be examined by the Secretary-General so that a report can be made available as soon as possible and submitted to the General Assembly at the latest at its thirty-sixth session for its consideration and appropriate action.
111. Negotiations regarding internationally agreed features for future operations related to debt problems of interested developing countries should be brought to an early conclusion in the light of the general principles adopted by the Trade and Development Board in section B of its resolution 165 (S-IX) of II March 1978./35
112. Governments should seek to adopt the following debt-relief actions or equivalent measures:
113. In order to alleviate the financial burden of developing countries resulting from price rises in their vital imports, urgent consideration should be given by the international community, through the International Monetary Fund and other relevant international financial institutions, to special and favourable criteria relating to the level of dependence of, and financial burden on, developing countries when they receive balance-of-payments supports from those institutions.
114. There is a close relationship between disarmament and development. Progress in the former would help greatly in the realization of the latter. Taking into consideration the recommendations of the tenth special session of the General Assembly, devoted to disarmament, relating to the relationship between disarmament and development,/36 effective measures should be taken, following disarmament measures, to use resources thus released for economic and social development, particularly for the benefit of the developing countries.
115, The international community should work for stable international monetary conditions supportive of a balanced and equitable development of the world economy and the accelerated development of developing countries, In order to create conditions more favourable to the development of the developing countries and the growth of the world economy in general, efforts to increase the responsiveness of the international monetary system to the needs and interests of the developing countries should be intensified through further reform of the system to be pursued and carried out expeditiously early in and throughout the Decade to the benefit of the entire international community, The principal features of a stable, effective and equitable international monetary and financial system should include:
116. In the implementation of the International Development Strategy, intensified emphasis must be accorded to the important role of technical co-operation in the development process. Technical cooperation makes an essential contribution to the efforts of developing countries to achieve self-reliance through its broad role of facilitating and supporting, inter alia, investment, research, training and development. Realization of the goals and objectives of the new International Development Strategy will therefore require a renewed emphasis upon technical co-operation and a significant increase in the resources provided for this purpose.
117. Access to and mastery of modern scientific and technological knowledge are essential for the economic and social progress of developing countries. Accordingly, high priority must be given to increasing the developing countries' scientific and technological capacities. The transfer of technology, which is of the utmost importance in this respect, must be encouraged and improved. International cooperation in those fields must be broadened and intensified. Special attention must be given to the development of technologies adapted to the specific conditions of developing countries.
118. Action will be taken by the international community to restructure the existing patterns of international scientific and technological relations affecting the transfer and development of technology. Developed countries should take adequate specific measures to give or facilitate as appropriate to the developing countries the freest and fullest possible access to technologies. To this end, all countries should take steps for the early finalization, adoption and effective implementation of the international code of conduct on the transfer of technology. Efforts should also be made to bring the negotiations on the revision of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property to a successful conclusion as early as possible. The international community should continue to review the ways in which the industrial property system can become a more effective instrument for the economic and technological development of all countries, particularly developing countries.
119. In technology planning and policies, special attention should be given to sectors of critical importance to developing countries. They should also take into account the need to arrive at a reasonable balance between labour-intensive and capital-intensive technologies with a view to achieving the fundamental aim of maximizing growth and employment and satisfying special needs of developing countries.
120. To assist developing countries and to contribute to reducing the imbalances between developed and developing countries in research and development, developed countries and international financial institutions should support these efforts. Developed countries should increase substantially and progressively during the course of the Decade the proportion of their research and development expenditure and efforts to be devoted to the solution of jointly identified specific problems of prime importance to developing countries with the active participation of researchers and institutions of developing countries. Technologically more advanced countries should facilitate the acquisition by developing countries of skills, especially high-level skills, through international exchanges. Developed countries should intensify their support of developing countries' efforts towards greater self-reliance in the field of technological development by taking other specific measures recommended, particularly those in resolution 112 (V) of 3 June 1979 of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 34/ on strengthening the technological capacity of developing countries including accelerating their technological transformation.
121. In accordance with the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development,/37 developing countries, with the necessary support of developed countries and international financial institutions, will intensify their efforts to strengthen their scientific and technological infrastructure and develop their endogenous technological and inventive capacities, in order to enhance their capacity to design and generate new technologies as well as to select, acquire, apply and adapt existing technology, inter alia, through:
122. All countries should seek to ensure that scientific and technological development will involve and benefit men and women equally and measures should be taken to facilitate equal access for men and women to scientific and technological training and to the respective professional careers.
123. Concerted efforts will be made by the international community early in the Decade to take comprehensive and effective action, as recommended by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development at its fifth session, at the national, regional and international-levels, aimed at minimizing the negative impact of the migration of skilled personnel so that such migration from developing countries will constitute an exchange in which the interests of all parties concerned are adequately protected. The international community should consider examining, early in the Decade, in the light of relevant United Nations decisions, arrangements whereby developing countries experiencing large-scale outflows of their skilled nationals, which cause economic disruption, could secure assistance in dealing with the adjustment problems arising therefrom.
124. Substantial resources should be mobilized for the United Nations Financing System for Science and Technology for Development, established by the General Assembly in section VI of its resolution 34/218 of 19 December 1979, to support actions needed for the development of science and technology in developing countries. In determining the nature and level of the resources of the Financing System, the following considerations should, inter alia, be taken into account:
125. As provided for in the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development, the development of the global and international information network should be expedited and, in this context, the Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for Development should consider urgently the establishment of such a system. The existing information systems within the United Nations and other international bodies set up for the exchange of scientific and technological information, which are also serving as industrial technology data banks, should form an integral part of the proposed global network. The network should be designed to meet the urgent needs of the developing countries. Priority should be given to covering alternative sources of technology and scientific, technical, socio-economic, legal and other aspects needed for decision making in the selection and transfer of technology.
126. Effective and urgent measures will be taken by the international community for the attainment of the goals and objectives in the field of energy, as spelt out in paragraph 34 of the present Strategy. These measures will include, inter alia, the following:
127. The question of co-operation in the field of energy will be dealt with within the over-all framework of international economic cooperation for development so as to encourage and accelerate energy conservation and the development of world energy resources by, inter alia, facilitating and improving access to energy-related technologies, expanded energy research and development and increased investment flows into energy exploration and development.
128. In the transport sector, national and international action will promote the development of world sea-borne trade and other transportation systems and the increase in the participation by developing countries in world transport of international trade and, to this end, appropriate structural changes will be carried out where necessary. The international community will continue to take the necessary steps to enable developing countries to compete more effectively and to expand their national and multinational merchant fleets so as to increase their share substantially with a view to reaching as close as possible to 20 per cent of the dead-weight tonnage of the world merchant fleet by 1990. The Convention on a Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences will be implemented by its signatories. Early in the Decade, the Convention on International Multimodal Transport will come into force, which will facilitate the development of multi modal transport operations by developing countries.
129. The international community will assist the developing countries in their efforts tn expand their capabilities in ports and related inland transport facilities and infrastructure in the training of maritime personnel. It should also, where appropriate, assist in the development of their shipbuilding and ship-repairing capacities.
130. Developing countries will be enabled to make major advancements in air transport, particularly in air cargo transport, inter alia, through the increase of the air transport fleets and the development of suitable airports and related infrastructures. Particular attention will be given at the international level to the elimination of discriminatory and unfair practices, where they exist, in civil aviation which are detrimental to the growth of the air sector in developing countries.
131. The road and railway transport sectors, which are recognized as important parts of the physical infrastructure in developing countries, will receive considerable support from the international community in order substantially to increase and improve the road and railway networks of the developing countries.
132. The international community will give adequate support, to the extent possible, to regional co-operation in the transport and communication sector, especially to the implementation of the Transport and Communications Decade in Africa, 1978-1988.
133. The international community will explore ways and means of increasing the availability of financing for the development of the transport sector.
134. Developing countries will pursue actively the promotion of economic and technical co-operation among themselves as a basic component of the efforts towards the establishment of the new international economic order which, as such, is based on co-operation among all States. In this context, they are committed to the effective implementation of the Arusha Programme for Collective Self-Reliance as well as to the programmes in those fields agreed at Mexico City, Havana and Buenos Aires and regional programmes, including the Lagos Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Monrovia Strategy for the Economic Development of Africa, which was adopted at the second extraordinary session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity, held at Lagos, on 28 and 29 April 1980./38 The implementation of these programmes in the 1980s would first of all help the developing countries, through their own efforts, to strengthen their economic potential, accelerate their economic growth and improve their position in the system of international economic relations.
135. On the basis of the proposals of developing countries in competent bodies, the international community will take measures to provide, as appropriate, support and assistance to developing countries in strengthening and enlarging their mutual co-operation, at the subregional, regional and interregional levels, including additional technical support, as well as conference and secretariat services for the holding of meetings in accordance with the established procedures and practices of the United Nations.
K. Least developed countries, most seriously affected countries, developing island countries and land-locked developing countries
1. Least developed countries
136. As an essential priority within the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade, the least developed countries-the economically weakest and poorest countries with the most formidable structural problems-require a special programme of sufficient size and intensity consistent with their national plans and priorities to make a decisive break from their past and present situation and their bleak prospects. Efforts must therefore be immediately and substantially expanded in order to transform their economies, to promote a self-sustained process of development, to accelerate agricultural and industrial progress and to ensure development of human resources and broadly based participation in the development process concurrent and consistent with equitable distribution of the gains of socio-economic development. Therefore, the international community will take urgently the necessary steps to finalize and implement the Substantial New Programme of Action for the 1980s for the least developed countries, which was launched by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development at its fifth session in its resolution 122 (V) of 3 June 1979.34/ The Programme is to be finalized, adopted and supported by the United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, to be convened in 1981.
137. To meet the objectives of the Substantial New Programme of Action for the 1980s, national plans will identify and cost major priority projects and programmes. The details for each country in terms of structural change in agriculture and industry, improved physical, social and institutional infrastructure, and improved performance in connexion with, inter alia, nutrition, literacy, health, employment and the development of human resources will be clearly specified. The goals to be achieved will require greater efforts by the least developed countries themselves, together with a substantial expansion of support from the international community
138. Every possible effort will be made to develop programmes that will enable each least developed country to increase its national income substantially-even doubling it in appropriate cases-by 1990.
139. To help the least developed land-locked countries to alleviate their geographical handicap, specific assistance will be provided for the development and improvement of a transit transport infrastructure, both administrative and physical. Similar specific assistance will be provided to least developed island countries for the development of their transport infrastructure.
140. The expanded planning efforts at the national, subregional and regional levels will be strongly backed by firm international commitments to expand resource flows to the least developed countries by substantial amounts. Commitments already undertaken /39 will be implemented effectively, within the framework of an equitable sharing of effort, taking into account the relative performance of donor countries. The United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries will take note of those measures which have already been taken, and consider necessary further measures to ensure an adequate minimum flow of external assistance to each least developed country.
141. To meet the pressing problems of the least developed countries, the modalities by which concessional aid is provided to them will become much more flexible and responsive to their special needs.
142. In national development efforts, high priority will be given to increasing production and export earnings as rapidly as is feasible. The aim should be to make progress towards self-reliance and self-sustained growth by reducing significantly the degree of dependence on foreign assistance flows during the 1990s. The international community will strongly support such efforts through financial and technical assistance and through commercial policy measures.
143. To meet the special needs of the least developed countries, the international community will support efforts towards strengthening the technological and productive capacity of those countries, increasing their absorptive capacity by building up their infrastructure, particularly in transportation, communication and electrification and assistance in the establishment of comprehensive inventories of their resources and preparation of industrial surveys, supporting their full industrialization and full participation in the processes of redeployment and in the international consultations on industrial growth, including the system of consultations, strengthening their import-substitution processes and their manufactures-export performance, setting up joint enterprises under regional co-operation and preferential treatment of the least developed countries within international agreements for industrial products and processed commodities. Financial flows to the least developed countries will be substantially increased on highly concessional terms, inter alia, with a view to implementing these measures.
144. To bring about an increase in agricultural production and the structural transformation of agriculture in the least developed countries, the level of annual investments in land development, including flood control, soil and water conservation measures and the establishment of permanent crops, in irrigation, machinery and equipment, livestock development, storage and marketing, transport and first-stage processing of primary agricultural production will be substantially increased. Commitments of external resources to agriculture in the least developed countries will be raised substantially and in real terms. The agreed recommendations of the United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries in this regard will be fully implemented.
145. It will also be especially important, in elaborating the Substantial New Programme of Action for the 1980s for the least developed countries, to make maximum use of co-operation arrangements among developing countries, particularly at the regional and subregional levels. In elaborating their programme for greater collective self-reliance and economic and technical co-operation among themselves, the developing countries will pay particular attention to the special difficulties of the least developed countries and to expanding substantially support for the least developed countries as a further important contribution to the above-mentioned programmes.
146. Serious consideration will be given by developed countries to increasing substantially and in real terms official development assistance to the least developed countries during the Decade. The proposals made by the Group of High-Level Experts on the least developed countries for the allocation by developed countries to the least developed countries of a minimum of 0.15 per cent of their gross national product as official development assistance by the first half of the 1980s, rising to 0.20 per cent during the second half of the 1980s, will be appropriately considered by the United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries in 1981 within the context of an overall increase in official development assistance with a view to achieving the internationally accepted targets.
2. Most seriously affected countries
147. The current world economic situation has given rise to deep concern at the deterioration of the economic and financial situation of those developing countries whose relatively weak economies make them particularly vulnerable to economic crises caused by sharp increases in the prices of their essential imports. The international community will consider extending relief and assistance to those countries which may be most seriously affected by the current economic crisis, bearing in mind immediate balance-of-payments and development needs: To this end, urgent consideration should be given to immediate relief measures in favour of those countries. Concrete measures will need to be urgently considered by the international community with a view to the implementation of recommendations agreed by the General Assembly on the basis of the Secretary-General's report. In the meantime, urgent consideration should be given to the implementation of the measures set out in General Assembly resolution 34/217 of 19 December 1979.
3. Developing island countries
148. During the Decade, further specific action will be taken to assist developing island countries in offsetting major handicaps due to geographical and other constraints. In order to lower their vulnerability to economic instability, every effort will be made by the international community to assist them in diversifying their economies, taking into account over-all prospects for, as well as existing levels of, development.
149. Efforts of developing island countries in actively seeking foreign investment will be supported by the international community. including investment in their infrastructural projects. especially in the sectors of water, electricity. industrial estates and transport. The establishment of joint ventures and assistance in strengthening the capacity of developing island countries to negotiate with foreign investors should also be explored during the Decade. Their access to foreign markets will be facilitated by assistance, both technical and financial, in their trade promotion efforts and by the simplification of preference procedures. where appropriate. so that small administrations and enterprises can take full advantage of preferential access to markets where it is in principle available. Assistance will be given in the establishment of appropriate technical education and training programmes, including the areas of marketing and management.
150. Financial and other assistance to developing island countries by multilateral and bilateral institutions will be augmented as appropriate. Assistance procedures should be simplified to the extent possible.
151. The developed countries and international organizations should be ready to take action to ensure that the full benefit of general measures in favour of developing countries is shared by developing island countries.
4. Land-locked developing countries
152. An integrated planning approach for the improvement ami development of transit transport facilities and services will be encouraged, particularly through more effective co-operation between landlocked countries and the transit countries. Such co-operation will involve the harmonization of transport planning and the promotion of joint ventures in the field of transport at regional, subregional and bilateral levels.
153. The international community will give, in accordance with the priorities of the land-locked countries and accepted development criteria. strong financial and technical assistance support, through specific actions. in accordance with resolution 123 (V) of 3 June 1979 of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.34/
154. In addition. multilateral and bilateral financial institutions will further intensify their efforts to raise the flow of resources to the land-locked developing countries to alleviate their geographical handicaps through diversification of their economies, giving particular priority to the establishment of industries and the development of natural resources.
155. In order to implement the above-mentioned measures. the international community. in particular the developed countries. is invited to contribute significantly and generously to the United Nations Special Fund for Land-locked Developing Countries. Those donor countries which have not yet contributed to the Fund should urgently consider reviewing their positions with a view to extending their full support to the Fund.
156. Because health. nutrition and general well-being depend upon the integrity and productivity of the environment and resources. measures should continue to be developed and carried out to promote the environmental and ecological soundness of developmental activities. Methods will be devised to assist interested developing countries in environmental management and in the evaluation of the costs and benefits. quantitative and qualitative. of environment protection measures with a view to dealing more adequately with the environmental aspects of development activities. This method will be developed taking fully into account the existing knowledge of interrelationships between development, environment. population and resources. To that end. research on these interrelationships will be intensified. The capacity of the developing countries will be strengthened to facilitate their making appropriate scientific and technical choices relating to environment in their development process.
157. Bilateral and multilateral donors will consider. within the over-all financing of projects in developing countries, at their request, meeting the costs of taking environmental aspects into account in the design and completion of such projects. They will furthermore provide assistance, including in the field of training. to develop the endogenous capacity of developing countries to follow the methods enumerated in paragraph 156 above. thereby also facilitating technical cooperation among developing countries.
158. The international community. in particular the developed countries. will substantially increase its financial and technical support to drought-stricken countries suffering from desertification. In this context, support to the Plan of Action to Combat Desertification /40 will be augmented.
159. The quality of life and the environment should be improved through. inter alia, the formulation and implementation of appropriate planning and development policies designed to ensure a better interregional balance between rural and urban development. as well as through the strengthening. in the context of human settlements planning, of measures to improve housing conditions for the most disadvantaged regions and communities - access to services, land and employment - and, in particular, through housing rehabilitation programmes.
160. Developing countries will formulate policies for the provision of basic shelter and infrastructure. To this end, and so as to benefit from the multiplying effect of investment in the field of human settlements. countries will develop their construction industry, particularly for low-cost housing. support relevant financing institutions. stimulate research and disseminate findings on efficient methods of construction. low-cost design and technology for infrastructure. indigenous building materials and environmental protection.
161. Recognizing the detrimental effects of disasters on the development of developing countries, the international community will take measures to improve and strengthen arrangements to provide developing countries with adequate and timely assistance in matters of disaster relief. prevention and preparedness.
162. Each country will freely determine and implement appropriate policies for social development within the framework of its development plans and priorities and in accordance with its cultural identity, socio-economic structure and stage of development. The necessary financial and technical assistance will be provided by the international community through, inter alia, specific international programmes to support the national endeavours of the developing countries in key areas of social policy. To this end, an important role should be played by the United Nations system. Each country shall intensify measures for the full utilization of human resources, especially for the training of national personnel, within the framework of its national plans and its present and long-term requirements for qualified national personnel at all levels and in all important sectors of socio-economic activity,
163, Countries will pursue the objectives of the reduction of poverty, promotion of employment opportunities and the provision of the right to work through enhanced economic growth and measures to ensure a fair distribution of the benefits of development and institutional reforms. As development requires productive and adequately remunerative employment, development planning will pay due attention to this aspect. Countries will seek policies to reconcile gains in productivity with increase of employment in the industrial, agricultural, service and other sectors of their economies as well as policies to promote improved working and living conditions in these sectors. Measures to that effect include access to land, credit and know-how, as well as an increase in training facilities adapted to the needs of the various sectors. The creation of producer co-operatives, including credit, marketing and processing, as well as consumer co-operatives will be encouraged. Countries will adopt effective measures to enhance the involvement of women in the development process. Likewise, measures for the benefit of youth will be formulated and adopted. Prompt measures will be taken to eliminate child labour in conformity with relevant international labour conventions and to promote the general welfare of children. In this regard, national development efforts, including policies, programmes and services that affect children. should be reviewed regularly with a view to extending and strengthening the basic services benefiting children, including water and sanitation, health, nutrition and education. International co-operation in support of these measures should be enhanced and strengthened.
164. Countries will formulate and implement education policies appropriate to their economic and social requirements. Each country will determine the balance between the necessary efforts and resources required to promote universal education, including the goal of free education at all levels, non-formal education of adults, cultural development and scientific and technological ability. Increased and equitable access to educational and training facilities will help to reduce income inequalities and to enhance the capability of the society for economic and social progress. Particular attention will be devoted to the transmission by the educational system of the cultural heritage and of universal values of mankind.
165. To attain an acceptable level of health for all by the year 2000, countries will establish an adequate and comprehensive system of primary health care as an integral part of a more general health system and as part of a general improvement in nutrition and Jiving standards and basic infrastructure for supplying such needs as safe water and basic sanitation. The development of appropriate health technologies, the provision of essential drugs, the prevention of the introduction of dangerous and hazardous drugs, the promotion of health-related research and the training of qualified health personnel at all levels, including highly qualified physicians, will complement the results expected from a multiplication of primary health care centres. Measures to reduce infant and general levels of mortality will include proper nutrition, education of parents, immunization of children and better environmental health. Countries will establish the requisite infrastructure and also introduce, expand and improve access to health care services and will strive to achieve the goal of providing health protection to the entire population, if possible free of charge.
166. Population policies will be considered as an integral part of over-all development policies. All countries will continue to integrate their population measures and programmes into their social and economic goals and strategies. Within the framework of national demographic policies, countries will take the measures they deem necessary concerning fertility levels in full respect of the right of parents to determine in a free, informed and responsible manner the number and spacing of their children. The international community will increase the level of population assistance in support of those measures. In addition, due consideration should be given to the need for increased biomedical and social science research into safer, more efficient and more widely acceptable techniques of fertility regulation.
167. It is for each developing country to decide, within the framework of a unified approach to development, the possible content of a national programme for the development of its human resources. Such a programme would include the improvement of primary and secondary education for the entire population, which provide a broad manpower basis for future development, acceleration of community activities and the development of skilled personnel. On the other hand, the developed countries should place increased emphasis on cooperation for the development of human resources in the developing countries. They should explore the most effective means of extending assistance in response to the development needs in specific areas as requested. In this context, the use of the mass media, which will reach a broader section of society, can be an effective measure for the development of human resources. Assistance in the areas of extension services and teacher training will also eventually affect a large part of the population.
168. The important set of measures to improve the status of women contained in the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year,/41 adopted at Mexico City in 1975, and the important agreed measures relating to the sectors of the International Development Strategy in the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women /42 adopted at Copenhagen in 1980. should be implemented.
169. The process of review and appraisal forms an integral part of the International Development Strategy. Its aim will be to ensure the effective implementation of the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade and to strengthen it as an instrument of policy. The process will be undertaken within the United Nations system at the global, sectoral and regional levels. and at the national level by the respective Governments, making full use of existing mechanisms and facilities and avoiding as far as possible duplication or proliferation of review activities.
170. The process will consist of systematic scrutiny, within the context of an over-all review of the international economic situation, of the progress made towards achieving the goals and objectives of the Strategy and the identification and appraisal of the factors which account for shortfalls that may be encountered.
171. This process should provide an occasion, in the light of this over-all review, to see how the implementation of the Strategy can be strengthened and the necessary political impulses given and to carry out. if necessary, the adjustment, intensification or reformulation of the policy measures in the light of evolving needs and developments.
172. At the national level. Governments will, in accordance with their national priorities and plans, appropriately reflect the goals and objectives and the policy measures of the International Development Strategy in their policy formulation. Where necessary, the evaluation capacity, comprising also the statistical capability, of the countries concerned should be strengthened. including through assistance, upon their request, from appropriate multilateral and bilateral sources.
173. At the regional level, the review and appraisal will be conducted by the respective regional commissions. Development banks, regional and subregional groups and organizations could collaborate with the regional commissions for this purpose. Furthermore. the regional commissions should carry out, as part of their regular activity of preparing economic surveys of the region, periodic reviews of major aspects of development in the evolving development experiences in their regions.
174. The regional commissions should consider the feasibility of preparing action programmes to support the efforts of developing countries in the implementation of the International Development Strategy in their respective areas. Furthermore. the regional com missions, in conjunction with relevant United Nations specialized agencies and multilateral development institutions, might suggest ways of improving United Nations assistance efforts and enhancing their coordination in the context of the particular economic and social development needs of each region.
175. At the sectoral level, the relevant specialized agencies, organs and organizations of the United Nations will contribute from the experience of their respective sectors to the process of review and appraisal at both the global and regional levels.
176. At the global level, review and appraisal will be carried out by the General Assembly, with the assistance, as appropriate, of a body of universal membership, which would report through the Economic and Social Council. The process will take into account the results achieved at the sectoral, regional and national levels. The Committee for Development Planning will be invited to submit its observations and recommendations. The Secretary-General will prepare and submit a comprehensive report and other appropriate documentation in order to assist the process of review and appraisal.
177. Developed countries, individually or through their relevant organizations, are invited to transmit reports of their development assistance efforts in the light of the commitments undertaken by them in the International Development Strategy and in relevant international forums.
178. The process of review and appraisal should, based on an assessment as provided for in General Assembly resolution 33/201 of 29 January 1979, ensure that the operational activities of the United Nations system contribute effectively to the implementation of the International Development Strategy.
179. The review and appraisal will, at all levels, take into account the results of the global negotiations relating to international economic co-operation for development, the United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, the International Conference for the Promotion of International Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, and of such United Nations conferences as effectively contribute to the implementation of the Strategy. as well as the results of relevant regional and interregional meetings. The agreed results will be incorporated in the Strategy by the General Assembly when and as appropriate. with a view to contributing to its effective implementation.
180. The first review and appraisal will be carried out by the General Assembly in 1984, on which occasion a decision as to the timing of a subsequent review or reviews will be taken.
20/ See A/S-11/14, annex I
21/ See A/10112, chap. IV.
22/ See Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Fourth Session, vol. I; Report and Annexes (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.76.II.D.10 and corrigendum), part one, sect. A, resolution 93 (IV).
24/ Report of the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development, Vienna. 20-31 August 1979 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.79.1.21 and corrigenda), chap. VII.
25/ Report of the United Nations World Population Conference, Bucharest. 19-30 August 1974 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.75.XIII.3), chap. I.
26/ See resolution 31/169, para. 2.
27/ See Report of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality. Development and Peace, Copenhagen, 14-30 July 1980 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.80.IY.J and corrigendum), chap. I. sect. A.
28/ See Official Records of the Trade and Development Board, Twenty first Session. Supplement No.3 (TD/B/802), annex I, resolution 6 (IX).
29/ Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Fifth Session. vol I, Report and Annexes (United Nations publication. Sales No. E.79.II.D.14). annex VI.
30/ See A/C.2/35/6, annex.
32/ See Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Report of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. Rome. 12-20 July 1979 (WCARRD/REP). part one.
33/ See Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Committee on Commodity Problems, Intergovernmental Group on Grains, Nineteenth Session, "World food security" (CCP:GR 75/9), August 1975; and Committee on World Food Security, "Report on the fifth session" (CL 78/10), April 1980.
34/ See Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Fifth Session, vol. I, Report and Annexes (United Nations publication, Sales No. E79.II.D.14), part one, sect. A.
35/ See Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-third Session, Supplement .IV" 15 (A/33/15 and Corr.1). vol. I, part two, annex I.
37/ Report of the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development. Vienna. 20-31 August 1979 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.79.1.21 and corrigenda), chap. VII.
38/ See A/S-11/14, annex I.
39/ See Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Fifth Session. vol. I. Report and Annexes (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.79.II.D.14). part one, sect. A. resolution 122 (V).
40/ A/CONF.74/36. chap. I.
41/ See Report of the World Conference of the International Women's Year, Mexico City, 19 July-21 July 1975 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.76.IV.1), chap. II, sect. A.
42/ See Report of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality. Development and Peace. Copenhagen. 14-30 July 1980 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.80.IV.3 and corrigendum), chap. I, sect A.