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General Assembly

Distr: General
10 July 1996
Original: English

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Fifty-first session

Human Rights Questions: Human Rights Questions, Including Alternative Approaches for Improving the Effective Enjoyment of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

Table of contents

Human Rights Questions
Letter from the Director-General of UNESCO to the Secretary-General
Appendix I : Final Report on the United Nations Year for Tolerance - Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and Follow-up Plan of Action

Appendix II : UNESCO General Conference Resolution 28 C/5.6 - Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and Follow-up Plan of Action
Appendix III : UNESCO General Conference Resolution 5.62 - Implementation of the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance

Note by the Secretary-General

1. In its resolution 49/213 of 23 December 1994, the General Assembly recalled its resolution 48/126 of 20 December 1993, by which it had proclaimed 1995 the United Nations Year for Tolerance, and requested the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to prepare for the conclusion of the Year a declaration of principles and a programme of action as a follow-up to the Year, and to submit them to the General Assembly at its fifty-first session.

2. The Secretary-General has the honour to submit to the General Assembly a letter addressed to him by the Director-General of UNESCO (see annex), in which he attaches a final report on the United Nations Year for Tolerance, which includes a Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and a Follow-Up Plan of Action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance (1995), adopted by acclamation by the General Conference of UNESCO, at its meeting on 16 November 1995, at its twenty-eighth session (25 October to 16 November 1995). The report should assist Member States in their discussion on the lines of action for the future, indicated by UNESCO in the Follow-Up Plan of Action for the promotion of tolerance, peace and solidarity among the peoples of the world.


Letter from the Director-General of UNESCO to the Secretary-General

The General Conference of UNESCO at its twenty-eighth session (25 October to 16 November 1995) adopted a Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and a Follow-Up Plan of Action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance.

I believe that this Declaration is a milestone in the world community's progress toward defining both the concept and the role of tolerance at the international and State levels, in civil society and in education. It was drafted through extensive consultations with member States, and makes use contributions of several meetings on tolerance held throughout the year. It recalls relevant human rights instruments, and addresses intolerance in forms, including violence, terrorism, injustice and exclusion.

The Follow-Up Plan indicates lines of action for the future, including educational initiatives, public awareness activities, social integration and development programmes, and continued mobilization of the United Nations for the promotion of tolerance, peace and solidarity among the people of world .

Article 6 of the Declaration proclaims 16 November the International for Tolerance. This day, the anniversary of the signing of the UNESC0 Constitution, could serve as an annual occasion for discussion of tolerance issues and for related special events, both in educational institutions and among the wider public, in cooperation with the media.

The General Conference decided to submit the Follow-Up Plan of Action the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance for consideration by the General Assembly at its fifty-first session. It is to be hoped that at this session Assembly would, in reviewing the Year, also assess the future course of tolerance campaign, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 49/213.

It is therefore my privilege to transmit to you the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and the Follow-Up Plan of Action as approved by General Conference of UNESCO. I should like to count on the cooperation United Nations in bringing about the widest possible distribution of these documents, particularly the Declaration, through all appropriate channels challenges posed by rising intolerance in every region call for a coordinated response by intergovernmental, governmental and non-governmental organizations working in partnership.

    (Signed) Federico Mayor


Final Report on the United Nations Year for Tolerance:

Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and
Follow-up Plan of Action

Part 1: Final Report

1. The proclamation of 1995 as the Year for Tolerance was first proposed at the twenty-sixth session of the UNESCO General Conference in its resolution 5.6 which invited the Director-General 'to examine, in consultation with the United Nations, the appropriate arrangements for declaring 1995, which is the fiftieth anniversary of UNESCO, United Nations Year for Tolerance, and to prepare a declaration on tolerance that might be discussed and possibly adopted on that occasion.'

2. In 1993, the United Nations General Assembly by its resolution 48/126 proclaimed 1995 the Year for Tolerance, and designated UNESCO lead agency for the Year.

3. In April 1994, the Director-General initiated an intergovernmental consultation, sending a circular letter (CL 3341)) to the secretaries-general of UNESCO National Commissions. Some 40 replies were received, proposing specific actions at the national level in the fields of education, sciences, social sciences, culture and communication.

4. At the end of 1994, the Director-General of UNESCO made a world-wide appeal for tolerance in the form of a Declaration on the Eve of the United Nations Year for Tolerance. He called for a definitive end to the archaic culture of war, which must at last yield to a culture of peace. He condemned 'ethnic cleansing, terrorism, cultural and religious extremism, genocide, exclusion and discrimination', while praising dialogue and non-violence as the best means of resolving the conflicts that naturally arise in human societies. This was one of a number of appeals for tolerance and non-violence made by the Director-General in connection with the Year.

5. On 21 February 1995, the Year for Tolerance was officially launched at a press conference by the Secretary-general of the United Nations and Director-General of UNESCO at United Nations Headquarters in New York

6. In conformity with its mandate as lead agency for the Year, UNESCO' prepared for 1995 a diverse programme of meetings, concerts, broadcasts festivals, publications, exhibitions and other special events across everyone of the world's regions. The Year's calendar of events included regional and national conferences, the creation of prizes and cultural programs, film and theater festivals, children's books, essay and poster contests, magazine articles, anthologies of quotations concerning tolerance, a UNESCO tolerance teaching guide, and special appearances by UNESCO Goodwill Ambassadors in the cause of tolerance. One of these, for example, was the 14 July 1995 Paris Concert for Tolerance by the French artist Jean-Michel Jarre, which drew 1.200,000 spectators. A Calendar of Events is available as Annex I to the present document.

7. The 1995 International Day of the Family and World Press Freedom Day we dedicated to the theme of tolerance. The 146th UNESCO Executive Board established two new prizes: the UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-violence and the UNESCO Prize for Children's and Young People's Literature in the Service of Tolerance.

8. In addition to public events, research, networking and assessments of needs and priorities were initiated by UNESCO, including evaluation of the most effective methods of addressing rising intolerance. The principle of tolerance was found to lie at the heart of the complex assemblage of international instruments establishing the basic rights and equality of all people. Continuation and expansion of these activities are foreseen in the Year's Follow-up Plan of Action.

9. In the course of the Year, regional conferences were hosted by Turkey, Brazil, Republic of Korea, Italy, Tunisia, India, and the Russian Federation, in accordance with UNESCO 27 C/Resolution 5.14. These meetings were special occasions for the mobilization of the scientific and culture communities in the cause of tolerance, and also reflected high-level political engagement. The conferences were marked by personal appearances of messages by the highest political authorities of the host countries.

10. Through these meetings, supplemented by a comprehensive consultation with all Permanent Delegations and Observers to UNESCO in July of 1995, a final version of the Declaration of Principles was prepared by the Secretariat. The Declaration, along with the Year's Follow-up Plan of Action, was discussed and adopted by acclamation by the General Conference on 16 November, 1995, the fiftieth anniversary of UNESCO. The Declaration proclaims that date the annual International Day for Tolerance.

11. In adopting the Declaration of Principles and Follow-up Plan of Action, the 185 UNESCO Member States committed themselves to 'promoting tolerance and non-violence through programmes and institutions in the fields of education, science, culture and communication' (Dec. of Principles, Art. 5).

12. The United Nations General Assembly also marked the end of the Year with a special plenary session on 20 November 1995. Twenty-one speakers took the floor in the discussion. One speaker proposed the convening of a worldwide Conference aimed at reducing hate.

13. In conformity with General Assembly resolution 49/213, the present document hereby provides to the General Assembly the text of the Declaration of Principles and the Plan of Action to follow-up the United Nations Year for Tolerance (1995).

Part II: Declaration of Principles on Tolerance

proclaimed and signed on 16 November 1995

The Member States of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, meeting in Paris at the twenty-eighth session of the General Conference, from 25 October to 16 November 1995,


Bearing in mind that the United Nations Charter states 'We, the peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, .. to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, ... and for these ends to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours',

Recalling that the Preamble to the Constitution of UNESCO, adopted on 16 November 1945, states that 'peace, if it is not to fail, must be founded on the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind',

recalling also that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms that 'Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion' (Article 18), 'of opinion and expression' (Article 19), and that education 'should promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups' (Article 26),

Noting relevant international instruments including:

  • the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
  • the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,
  • the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,
  • the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,
  • the Convention on the Rights of the Child,
  • the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol and regional instruments,
  • the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,
  • the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,
  • the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance Based on Religion or Belief,
  • the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities,
  • the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism,
  • the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Conference on Human Rights,
  • the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World Summit for Social Development,
  • the UNESCO Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice,
  • the UNESCO Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education,

Bearing in mind the objectives of the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, the World Decade for Human Rights Education, and the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People,

Taking into consideration the recommendations of regional conferences organized in the framework of the United Nations Year for Tolerance in accordance with UNESCO General Conference 27 C/Resolution 5.14, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of other conferences and meetings organized by Member States within the programme of the United Nations Year for Tolerance,

Alarmed by the current rise in acts of intolerance, violence, terrorism, xenophobia, aggressive nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism, exclusion, marginalization and discrimination directed against national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, refugees, migrant workers, immigrants and vulnerable groups within societies, as well as acts of violence and intimidation committed against individuals exercising their freedom of opinion and expression - all of which threaten the consolidation of peace and democracy both nationally and internationally and which are all obstacles to development.

Emphasizing the responsibilities of Member States to develop and encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, gender, language, national origin, religion or disability, and to combat intolerance.

Adopt and solemnly proclaim this Declaration of Principles on Tolerance

Resolving to take all positive measures necessary to promote tolerance in our societies, because tolerance is not only a cherished principle, but also a necessity for peace and for the economic and social advancement of all peoples,

We declare the following:

Article 1 - Meaning of tolerance

    1.1 Tolerance is respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of our world's cultures, our forms of expression and ways of being human. It is fostered by knowledge, openness, communication and freedom of thought, conscience and belief. Tolerance is harmony in difference. It is not only a moral duty, it is also a political and legal requirement. Tolerance, the virtue that makes peace possible, contributes to the replacement of the culture of war by a culture of Peace.

    1.2 Tolerance is not concession, condescension or indulgence. Tolerance is, above all, an active attitude prompted by recognition of the universal human rights and fundamental freedoms of others. In no circumstance can it be used to justify infringements of these fundamental values. Tolerance is to be exercised by individuals, groups and States.

    1.3 Tolerance is the responsibility that upholds human rights, pluralism (including cultural pluralism), democracy and the rule of law. It involves the rejection of dogmatism and absolutism and affirms the standards set out in international human rights instruments.

    1.4 Consistent with respect for human rights, the practice of tolerance does not mean toleration of social injustice or the abandonment or weakening of one's convictions. It means that one is free to adhere to one's own convictions and accepts that others adhere to theirs. It means accepting the fact that human beings, naturally diverse in their appearance, situation, speech, behaviour and values, have the right to live in peace and to be as they are. It also means that one's views are not to be imposed on others.

Article 2 - State level

    2.1 Tolerance at the State level requires just and impartial legislation Iaw enforcement and judicial and administrative process. It also requires that economic and social opportunities be made available to each person without any discrimination. Exclusion and marginalization can lead to frustration, hostility and fanaticism.

    2.2 In order to achieve a more tolerant society, States should ratify existing international human rights conventions, and draft new legislation where necessary to ensure equality of treatment and of opportunity for all groups and individuals in society.

    2.3 It is essential for international harmony that individuals, communities and nations accept and respect the multicultural character of the human family. Without tolerance there can be no peace, and without peace there can be no development or democracy.

    2.4 Intolerance may take the form of marginalization of vulnerable groups and their exclusion from social and political participation, as well as violence and discrimination against them. As confirmed in the Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice, 'All individuals and groups have the right to be different' (Article 1.2).

Article 3 - Social dimensions

    3.1 In the modem world, tolerance is more essential than ever before. It is an age marked by the globalization of the economy and by rapidly increasing mobility, communication, integration and interdependence, large-scale migrations and displacement of populations, urbanization and changing social patterns. Since every part of the word is characterized by diversity, escalating intolerance and strife potentially menaces every region. It is not confined to any country, but is a global threat.

    3.2 Tolerance is necessary between individuals and at the family and community levels. Tolerance promotion and the shaping of attitudes of openness, mutual listening and solidarity should take place in schools and universities, and through non-formal education, at home and in the workplace. The communication media are in a position to play a constructive role in facilitating free and open dialogue and discussion, disseminating the values of tolerance, and highlighting the dangers of indifference towards the rise in intolerant groups and ideologies.

    3.3 As affirmed by the UNESCO Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice, measures must be taken to ensure equality in dignity and rights for individuals and groups wherever necessary. In this respect, particular attention should be paid to vulnerable groups which are socially or economically disadvantaged so as to afford them the protection of the laws and social measures in force, in particular with regard to housing, employment and health, to respect the authenticity of their culture and values, and to facilitate their social and occupational advancement and integration, especially through education.

    3.4 Appropriate scientific studies and networking should be undertaken to co-ordinate the international community's response to this global challenge, including analysis by the social sciences of root causes and effective countermeasures as well as research and monitoring in support of policy-making and standard-setting action by Member States.

Article 4 - Education

    4.1 Education is the most effective means of preventing intolerance. The first step in tolerance education is to teach people what their shared rights and freedoms are, so that they may be respected, and to promote the will to protect those of others.

    4.2 Education for tolerance should be considered an urgent imperative; that is why it is necessary to promote systematic and rational tolerance teaching methods that will address the cultural, social, economic, political and religious sources of intolerance - major roots of violence and exclusion. Education policies and programmes should contribute to development of understanding, solidarity and tolerance among individuals as well as among ethnic, social, cultural, religious and linguistic groups and nations.

    4.3 Education for tolerance should aim at countering influences that lead to fear and exclusion of others, and should help young people to develop capacities for independent judgment, critical thinking and ethical reasoning.

    4.4 We pledge to support and implement programmes of social science research and education for tolerance, human rights and non-violence. This means devoting special attention to improving teacher training, curricula, the content of textbooks and lessons, and other educational materials including new educational technologies, with a view to educating caring and responsible citizens open to other cultures, able to appreciate the value of freedom, respectful of human dignity and differences, and able to prevent conflicts or resolve them b non-violent means.

Article 5 - Commitment to action

We commit ourselves to promoting tolerance and non-violence through programmes and institutions in the fields of education, science, culture and communication.

Article 6 - International Day for Tolerance

In order to generate public awareness, emphasize the dangers of intolerance and react with renewed commitment and action in support of tolerance promotion and education, we solemnly proclaim 16 November the annual international Day for Tolerance.

Part III: Plan of Action to follow up the United Nations Year for Tolerance (1995)

A common and sustained effort

1. The causes and factors contributing to manifestations of intolerance around the world are complex, and do not lend themselves to simple or facile solutions. Social variables include the progressive breakdown of family structures, migration to often overcrowded and dysfunctional urban areas, loss of traditional values, marginalization and exposure to violence in the media and in daily life. In addition, every society in the world today is diverse in its own way, as individual mobility unparalleled in past centuries brings millions of people into new environments every year. The world that young people are entering today is a multicultural. multi-ethnic and increasingly urban reality, where tolerance of diversity is necessary for the survival and human development of all members of society.

2. Among political and social factors, there are the fragility of democratic institutions, lack of respect for human rights, explosive nationalisms and ethnic rivalries, and conflicts that uproot and displace millions of people. In the economic field, unemployment and under-employment, great extremes of poverty and wealth within each country (and among countries) and continuing underdevelopment contribute to social tensions that manifest themselves as intolerance.

3. Despite these challenges, human beings have shown themselves to be capable of significant change, growth and adaptation in modem times and throughout history. Again and again they have proved capable of recognizing their underlying unity, their common hopes and aspirations, and the richness of human diversity.

4. Given the primary tools of education, dialogue and communication skills and -forums, encouragement from leaders of public opinion, supportive legislation and the will to coexist as neighbours at peace with one another, the challenges need not prove insurmountable. The mandate of the United Nations and of UNESCO, in the interest of conflict prevention, promotion of human rights, mutual understanding, and social and economic development, points to the necessity of a sustained and co-operative effort to encourage the values of tolerance and peace among all the people of the world.


5. According to 144 EX/Decision 5.1.1 and 145 EX/Decision 5.1 of the Executive Board and the recommendations of regional consultative meetings of National Commissions, the aim of the follow-up programme is to transpose the most successful components of the United Nations Year for Tolerance into more enduring strategies and structures by which tolerance promotion and sensitization may be improved in every region of the world. This approach takes advantage of the synergy and momentum generated during the Year, to propel the campaign into 1996 and beyond.

6. As modern societies become increasingly diverse and interdependent, tolerance becomes ever more essential for the survival and well-being of both individuals and the communities in which they live. Tolerance is a matter not only of rights but also of responsibilities: moral obligations undertaken by citizens and States to provide for peaceful coexistence in and among integrated societies. Tolerance involves both behaviours that can be regulated and attitudes that cannot, both action by States in the domain of human rights all action by individuals as moral agents in a pluralistic environment.

7. The positive and active elucidation of the meaning of tolerance will be a part of Follow-up activities. Tolerance is neither indifference nor concession nor condescension: it is openness, respect, solidarity and acceptance of our diversity as human beings. Tolerance is facilitated through direct contacts, communication and education. In place of fear and rejection of the unknown, tolerance is mutual understanding through active interest in the traditions and beliefs of others and the sharing of common ideas.

8. The overall objective of the programme is therefore to educate, inform and empower individuals to assume the responsibilities of dialogue, mutual respect, toleration and non-violence, and to encourage pluralism and tolerance in the policies of Member States. In all, emphasis will be placed on constructing practical and concrete tools for problem-solving at the international, regional, national and local levels through a multifaceted and sustained campaign involving the participation of diverse institutions and societies.


9. This fundamental work will be implemented by the principal actors of international society, including Member States, the United Nations system, National Commissions, both universal and regional intergovernmental organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, local communities, and municipalities, and other actors in the public and private spheres.

Education and networking

10. The role of education is crucial. It can help to shape lifelong attitudes and furnish young people with the interpersonal skills they will need to live at peace with one another for years to come. This requires an integrated approach to education for peace, human rights, democracy and international understanding. Among its basic components are rights and values education, foreign language teaching, multicultural and intercultural curricula, new approaches to the teaching of history and citizenship, specialized teacher training and the creation of a democratic and tolerant climate in the classroom itself.

11. One of the main features of the follow-up to the United Nations Year for Tolerance is the proposal to establish an International Day for Tolerance on 16 November. This date is the anniversary of the signing of UNESCO's Constitution in 1945. Such a Day would serve as an annual occasion to focus on tolerance education worldwide, as endorsed by Education Ministers in the Declaration and Integrated Framework or Action of the 44th session of the International Conference on Education. In addition, the International Day for Tolerance would be an opportunity to undertake, in creative co-operation with the media in each country, special events, publications and broadcasts to mobilize public opinion in favour of tolerance.

12. With its affiliated networks, including the Associated Schools Project, the International Bureau of Education, the UNESCO Chairs, the UNESCO International Network of Textbook Research Institutes and a number of nongovernmental organizations, UNESCO will implement a major campaign for .tolerance teaching. Books, posters, films and videos on non-violence and tolerance will be developed, and teacher-training packages will be produced and distributed to the mass media through governmental and nongovemmental programmes. In addition, support will be given to cultural projects with a historical and regional approach to multiculturalism, highlighting the role of tolerance in the world's cultural heritage.

13. These initiatives coincide with the objectives of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995-2005, which include the training of human rights educators, the development of special curricula and the translation and worldwide dissemination of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

14. They will also be coordinated with follow-up to the International Year of the Family (1994) and the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Not only is the family milieu the natural starting-point for the promotion of tolerance and non-violence, but in addition, children are the most vulnerable victims in the case of conflict, acts of intolerance and human rights violations.

15. The world must make an investment for peace in its young people, who are often caught up in conflict situations beyond their control. UNESCO will contribute to the maintenance of intercultural summer camps, internships and exchanges of young people from conflict and post-conflict area, as well as film and broadcast projects by and for young people. International and regional networks in this field will be encouraged.

16. Education is also a means for spreading the values of religious toleration, as reflected in the special reports and resolutions of the Human Rights Commission regarding religious intolerance. Encouragement of constructive dialogue, such as the 1994 Barcelona meeting on the Contribution by Religions to the Culture of Peace, should continue in the follow-up to the Year for Tolerance. The Barcelona meeting brought together representatives of the world's religions, who agreed in repudiating hatred, intolerance and violence in the name of religion.

17. The promotion of tolerance and reconciliation among all parties involved in a conflict is the main objective of the culture of peace national programmes. These programmes put emphasis on development actions which propose non-violent alternatives within the context of pre- and post-conflict situations. Following 144 EX/Decision 5.1.1, close co-ordination of the activities related to the follow-up of the United Nations Year for Tolerance and the national programmes promoting a culture of peace is foreseen.

18. Along with education there is a need for monitoring and research in support of policy-making and standard-setting action in every region. A network of university exchanges in co-operation with UNESCO human rights and peace Chairs will be established for the advancement of knowledge and the dissemination of existing information in support of curriculum development, statistical studies, and early warning of the emergence of new forms of discrimination and the escalation of intolerant ideologies such as racism, fascism, anti-Semitism, xenophobia and aggressive nationalism.

19. This network will advance social scientific research into the sources of intolerance and recommend effective countermeasures. In the long term, the components of the network will serve as focal points and forums for intercultural and interreligious dialogue and liaison with the media, encouraging mutual understanding for the enhancement of social cohesion.

Mobilization of the United Nations system

20. Follow-up to the Year for Tolerance will be coordinated with the Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development and the Recommendations of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II). Given that intolerance - the rejection of difference - is a major factor in social disintegration in every region of the world, governments should use public policies to promote solidarity, tolerance, equality of opportunity and non-violent resolution of conflicts. Social justice and tolerance go hand in hand.

21. The rights and responsibilities regarding tolerance and the right to be different are firmly established in human rights law. They have been repeatedly stated in international and regional instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Conventions on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and Discrimination Against Women, the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, and Conventions on the Status of Stateless Persons, Workers and Indigenous People. They are also taken up by the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action and are currently being addressed in the context of the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, 1993-2003, and the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People, 1995-2005.

22. Accordingly, UNESCO will work in close co-operation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Centre for Human Rights towards the implementation of the Declaration of Principles of Tolerance and the present Follow-Up Plan of Action.

23. Tolerance will continue to be central to the United Nations High Commissioners Office for Refugees (UNHCR) mandate to provide international protection and seek permanent solutions for the problems of refugees. The eventual legal, economic and social status of refugees depends upon the quality of their reception into their new environment, and tolerance is decisive in this process. UNHCR will accordingly continue its public information campaigns to raise the public's awareness and sensitivity towards the plight of refugees.

24. Tolerance is also a central objective of the International Labour Organization's long-standing programmes concerning equality in the workplace, migrant workers exploited and indigenous populations, as well as the social consequences of unemployment and poverty. IL0 will carry out education projects to inform both workers and children about their basic rights. In addition, UNICEF will pursue peace education initiatives aimed at rehabilitation, reconciliation and conflict prevention in both the industrialized and the developing world. Its Education for Development Programme is to become part of a universal curriculum teaching children how to think for themselves about human dignity, interdependence, images and perceptions, social justice and conflict resolution. The United Nations Development Programme will address the role of economic factors in exacerbating social tensions through diverse development projects aimed at raising living standards in developing countries.

25. Health status - both illness and disability - is also a factor in discrimination and intolerance. Intolerance of people living with disease or disability, often a result or ignorance and misplaced fear, increases the personal and social impact of the disease Conversely, there is a positive correlation between tolerance and the Protection of health.

26. In the case of the pandemic HIV/AIDS, for example the Joint and Co-sponsored United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS co-sponsored by UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank, will continue the initiatives undertaken in this field by the World Health Organizations Global Programme on AIDS.

27. Tolerance issues of special relevance to women are addressed in UNESCO's contributions to the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Cooperation will be maintained in the follow-up to the Beijing Conference.


28. This Follow-Up of Action will be co-ordinated through regular system-wide consultations of the United Nations and its Specialized Agencies, and in partnership with United Nations associations, UNESCO Associated Schools and Clubs, and non-governmental, intergovernmental and regional organizations in every part of the world.

29. It is proposed to establish a network for efficient communication and co-operation among the principal actors of this Follow-Up Plan of Action, including a system of evaluation of programme effectiveness and periodic reports to the United Nations and UNESCO governing bodies.

30. The co-ordination mechanism will involve the active participation of regional organizations such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the European Parliament. Co-operation will be continued in connection with the Council of Europe's Campaign against Racism, Xenophobia, Anti-Semitism and Intolerance, a public awareness campaign promoting mutual understanding, particularly among young people, in the region's diverse societies throughout 1995 and afterwards. Measures will be taken to increase co-operation with intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in every other region as well, through concrete projects corresponding to the special circumstances of each area.

31. At the national level the UNESCO National Commissions will be responsible for overseeing and reporting on the implementation of the Follow-Up Plan of Action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance. Where relevant, the National Commissions will take concrete steps to ensure satisfactory national implementation and will co-ordinate this effort as appropriate with national authorities.

32. In addition, extra-budgetary sponsorship will be pursued, in the framework of the follow-up programme, to support special projects in the field of tolerance promotion and sensitization among the widest public with the support inter alia of UNESCO Goodwill Ambassadors.

Appendix II

UNESCO General Conference
Resolution 28 C/5.6:

Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and Follow-Up Plan of Action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance

The General Conference,

Having examined the report by the Director-General on the implementation of 26 C/Resolution 5.6, concerning the adoption of a Declaration on Tolerance, and Proposals relating to a Follow-Up Plan of Action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance (28 C/26),

Recalling 146 EX/Decision 5.4.2 in which the Executive Board decided to examine at its 147th session the document submitted by the Director-General to the General Conference and to forward as an addendum such comments as it might have thereon to the General Conference

Taking note of United Nations General Assembly resolution 49/213,

1. Highly appreciates the Director-General's efforts in support of the programme of the United Nations Year for Tolerance, including his public addresses and appeals;

2.Invites the Director-General:

    (a) to continue his present efforts in promoting the spirit of tolerance and non-violence, including the proposal to the Executive Board and the General Conference of any actions he deems appropriate to counter manifestations of violence and hatred;

    (b) to continue his efforts in close co-operation with Member States, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the relevant bodies of the United Nations system, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in advancing the ongoing United Nations Year for Tolerance projects and in the establishment of the follow-up programme;

    (c) to explore the possibility of creating a multidisciplinary research and training network, in respect of action to combat intolerance, discrimination and violence, in the research centres and universities of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea that have participated in the holding of symposia, conferences and other events within the framework of the United Nations Year for Tolerance;

    (d) to examine the possibility of entrusting the Advisory Committee on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy with the task of evaluating the activities undertaken within UNESCO to implement the Plan of Action to follow up the United Nations Year for Tolerance;

    (e) to provide adequate financial and human resources for the implementation of the follow-up programme;

3. Invites Member States to continue this programme on a permanent basis by incorporating its fundamental features in their education systems by means of normative instruments;

4. Decides to declare 16 November International Day for Tolerance beginning In 1995;

5. Calls upon Member States to contribute their plans and suggestions for observing and celebrating such a Day, both in educational establishments and among the general public;

6. Adopts the Follow-Up Plan of Action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance (1995) and the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance;

7. Decides, in accordance with United Nations General Assembly resolution 49/213, to submit the Follow-Up Plan of Action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance and the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance to the fifty-first session of the United Nations General Assembly.

Appendix III

UNESCO General Conference Resolution 5.62:
Implementation of the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance

The General Conference,

Considering that UNESCO, by reason of the responsibilities incumbent upon it under its Constitution in the fields of education, science - both natural and social sciences -, culture and communication, is required to call the attention of States and peoples to the problems related to all aspects of the essential subject of tolerance and intolerance,

Having regard to the UNESCO Declaration of Principles on Tolerance, proclaimed on 16 November 1995.

1.Urges Member States:

    (a) to mark 16 November as an annual International Day for Tolerance by organizing special events and programmes to spread the message of tolerance among their citizens, in co-operation with educational institutions, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the media in every region;

    (b) to communicate to the Director-General any information that they would like to share, including knowledge generated by research or public discussion of the issues of tolerance and cultural pluralism, in order to increase our understanding of the phenomena associated with intolerance and with ideologies that preach intolerance, such as racism, fascism and anti-Semitism, and of the most effective measures for addressing these issues;

2. Invites the Director-General:

    (a) to ensure the widest possible dissemination of the text of the Declaration of Principles and, to that end, to publish and arrange for the distribution of the text not only in the official languages of the General Conference but also in as many other languages as possible;

    (b) to initiate an appropriate mechanism for co-ordinating and evaluating actions undertaken in support of tolerance promotion and education in the United Nations system and in co-operation with other partner organizations;

    (c) to communicate the Declaration of Principles to the Secretary-General of the United Nations with a request that he submit it, as appropriate, to the fifty-first session of the United Nations General Assembly in accordance with the latter's resolution 49/213.